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Celestial Bodies. ERAU RET Erica Ajder. Andromeda galaxy. Crab Nebula. Sombrero Galaxy. Horsehead nebula. Ultra Deep Field. Article Feedback. Based on the article write 3 interesting facts or comments that you found from the article Share 1 interesting fact or comment with the group.

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celestial bodies

Celestial Bodies


Erica Ajder

article feedback
Article Feedback
  • Based on the article write 3 interesting facts or comments that you found from the article
  • Share 1 interesting fact or comment with the group

Hubble Telescope

black body radiation
Black Body Radiation
  • What you think a blackbody is?
  • A blackbody is a surface that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation
  • All bodies with temperature give off thermal radiation
  • As temperature increases, blackbodies emit visible light from longer wavelength or lower frequency (red) to shorter wavelength or higher frequency (blue)
star color composition
Star Color/composition
  • What is a star made of?
  • It is made up of various gaseous elements
  • The center of a star is dense; the outer layers are less dense and make up the star’s atmosphere
  • What does the spectrum of a star tell you about the star?
  • The spectrum of a star gives information about the composition and temperature of a star
emission spectrum
Emission Spectrum
  • What do you think Emission Spectrum means?
  • Emission lines are lines made when certain wavelengths, of light, or colors, are given off by hot gasses.
  • Each elements produces a unique set of emission lines, which assists in identifying the elements in a star.
  • This set of lines is known as the emission spectrum
absorption spectrum
Absorption spectrum
  • What do you think absorption spectrum is?
  • A star’s spectrum is made of dark emission lines. A star’s atmosphere absorbs certain colors of light, which causes black lines to appear.
  • Because a star’s atmosphere absorbs some colors of light, the spectrum of a star is called an absorption spectrum.
example of each spectrum type
Example of Each Spectrum Type

What do you notice about the absorption & emission spectrum of hydrogen?

kirchoff s laws
Kirchoff’s Laws

1. A hot solid object produces light with a continuous spectrum

2. A hot gas at low pressure produces an emission spectrum

3. Light passing through a cool gas will produce an absorption spectrum

examples of laws
Examples of Laws

3. Light passing through a cooler gas

2. Hot gas at low temperature

1. Light passing through Solid Object

  • the apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from different locations

Courtesy of Holt Reinhart

apparent absolute magnitude
Apparent & Absolute magnitude
  • What do you think is the difference between Apparent & Absolute Magnitude?
  • Apparent Magnitude - the brightness of a star as seen from Earth
  • (how bright it looks to you)
  • Absolute Magnitude is the actual measured brightness of a star
  • The absolute magnitude of our sun is 4.8 but because it is so close it appears to be a -26.8 (extremely bright)
types of stars
Types of Stars
  • What stage of a star’s life cycle lasts the longest?
  • Main sequence -2nd & longest stage
  • What stages could a star enter after main sequence?
  • Red Giant or Red Supergiant
  • Red Giants can be 10x larger than our sun
  • Supergiants can be 100x larger than our sun
types of stars continued
Types of stars Continued
  • What stage could a star the size of our sun or smaller enter after being a Red Giant?
  • White Dwarf – a small hot dim star that is leftover center of an old star
  • White Dwarfs run out of hydrogen and no longer fuse hydrogen to make helium
when stars get old
When stars get old
  • What happens when a massive star collapses and throws its outer layers into space?
  • Supernova - can be brighter than an entire galaxy for several days
  • Particles at the core collapse to form neutrons
  • If the mass of this new star is about 2 times the mass of the sun, a neutron star may form
  • A pulsar is a spinning neutron star
3 types of galaxies
3 Types of Galaxies
  • What are the 3 types of galaxies?
  • Spiral, Elliptical, Irregular
  • Identify the 3 types below




Irregular- galaxies that do not fit into any other category

Elliptical- 1/3 of all galaxies are massive blobs of stars & contain mostly older stars

Spiral- galaxies that have a bulge in center & arms that spiral outward

which of the following forces holds galaxies together
Which of the following forces holds galaxies together?
  • A. Electrical
  • B. Electromagnetic
  • C. Gravitational
  • D. Magnetic
Which one of the following properties do astronomers use to determine temperature & Composition of stars?
  • A. the apparent motion of stars
  • B. the absolute magnitude of stars
  • C. the apparent magnitude of stars
  • D. the absorption spectrum of stars
what type of star
What type of star?

Astronomers estimate that in another 5 billion years, the Sun will burn up all of its hydrogen fuel. At the end of this 5-billion year pd., what kind of star will the Sun change into?

  • A. red giant C. white dwarf
  • B. red dwarf D. red supergiant

Which of the following colors would indicate to an astronomer that a star has a very high surface temperature?

  • F. blue
  • G. orange
  • H. red
  • I. yellow
properties of waves
Properties of waves
  • What does a wave carry?
  • Energy
  • What are the 4 properties of a wave?
  • Frequency – # of waves per sec (Hertz)
  • Wavelength – distance between any pt on a wave to identical pt on next wave
  • Amplitude – distance particles vibrate from rest position
  • Wavespeed –

speed a wave



types of waves
Types of waves
  • What are the 2 main types (not examples) of waves?
  • Transverse - waves in which the particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction wave is traveling; has crest & troughs; medium not required – examples?
  • Electromagnetic waves, rope waves
  • Longitudinal - waves in which the particles vibrate back & forth along the path that waves move; has compressions and rarefactions; must have a medium – examples?
  • Sound waves, seismic waves, spring waves
electromagnetic em waves
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves
  • Name as many types of EM waves that you can in 2 min with your groups
  • Visible Light
  • Radio waves
  • Microwaves
  • X-rays
  • Gamma
  • Infrared
  • Ultraviolet
  • All waves produced by stars & galaxies
electromagnetic spectrum
Electromagnetic spectrum

Place the previously discussed electromagnetic waves on the spectrum chart

dangers of waves
Dangers of waves
  • Which waves are considered dangerous if exposed to large amounts?
  • X-rays, Gamma & Ultraviolet
  • Why?
  • The higher the frequency and the shorter wavelength the more dangerous the wave because they have more ENERGY and can travel directly through matter
  • Which of the 3 do we have most contact with on a regular basis?
  • Ultraviolet
  • How can we protect ourselves from dangerous waves?
  • Sunblock
  • Protective clothing
  • UV blocking sunglasses
  • Stay out of the sun
  • Lead aprons when receiving x-rays
planet introduction
Planet introduction
  • All planets are bound to stars because of _?_
  • Refresher:
  • All planets move in an __________around a star
  • Planets move fastest when ____________ (closer/further) to its star
  • The further a planet is from the sun the _________ it takes to orbit the sun
  • The further a planet is from the sun the _________ the gravitational pull





hodometer lab
Hodometer Lab
  • Follow directions in order to create a scaled down version of the planets in order to envision planet spacing in our solar system
celestial body project
Celestial body project
  • Each one of you is going to do a project on one celestial body
  • You will be teaching your celestial body to the class through a power point presentation next week