Puritans in America. 17 th -18 th century. History of Religious Refugees in America. A. Upset by persecution in England 1. King Charles I forbade change to Church of England
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A. Upset by persecution in England
1. King Charles I forbade change to Church of England
2. Puritans demanded reform while Separatists demanded a break; both felt the Church of England was becoming “too Catholic.” Each wanted to change it—either by purifying it (Puritans) or separating from it (Separatists).
B. Fled England for East Coast
1. Separatists landed at Plymouth via the Mayflower, 1620
2. Puritans landed at Massachusetts Bay via the WinthropFleet, 1630
3. Later, Massachusetts Bay colony absorbed Plymouth
4. Puritans established primary schools, renowned colleges, and set up the first colonial printing press
Based on the teachings of John Calvin, whose Calvinism had five basic principles:
“total depravity”: based on the doctrine of original sin; man is inclined more to evil than to good
“unconditional election”: predestination—man’s end is not decided by him, but by God; in most cases, man is headed towards damnation (= the non-elect), in a few, he is headed towards salvation (= the elect)
“limited atonement”: Jesus died for some, not for all; redemption is intended for the elect, not the non-elect
“irresistible grace”:the elect cannot struggle against their salvation
“perseverance of the saints”:the elect cannot lose their salvation
B. Man and his accomplishments exist solely to glorify God.
C. If one’s hard work results in success, it is a sign that he or she is one of the “elect.”
A. sermons, ex. “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” by Jonathan Edwards
B. sermon, ex. “A Model of Christian Charity”
C. historical narratives, ex. “Of Plymouth Plantation” by William Bradford
D. poetry, ex. Anne Bradstreet’s
1. Audience: herself
2. Purpose: explore the tension between her desire and duty
3. Context: written and published around 1650, her brother-in-law published a collection of her scholarly poems as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, By a Gentlewoman of These Parts
digression, or trappings
1. How did the Puritans strive to be original?2. What was the Puritan American Dream?3. How is the Puritan American Dream like today’s American Dream?
Course Theme Questions