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The periodic Table - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The periodic Table
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  1. The periodic Table

  2. The Periodic Table • Group / Family: a vertical column in the periodic table. • Elements within groups have similar properties. • Period / Row: Horizontal rows on the periodic table.

  3. Metals • Generally smooth and shiny • Mostly solid at room temperature • Exception is mercury (Hg) • Good conductors • Mostly malleable and ductile

  4. Non-Metals • Generally gases or dull, brittle solids • Poor conductors • Br is liquid at room temperature

  5. Metalloids (semi-metals) • Have physical and chemical properties of both metals and nonmetals. • Solid at room temperature • Not as malleable as metals • Not as brittle as nonmetals • Semiconductors

  6. Alkali Metals – Group 1 • Silvery metallic appearance • Very soft • Low melting points compared to other metals • Very reactive – not found in nature as free metals

  7. Alkaline Earth Metals – Group 2 • Silvery-white, metallic appearance • Harder and denser than alkali metals, but still relatively soft • Higher melting and boiling points than alkali metals • Reacts with oxygen

  8. Transition Metals – Groups 3-12 • Includes lanthanides and actinides • Generally good conductors • Ductile and malleable • High densities and high melting points

  9. Boron Group – Group 13 • Mostly metals that have silvery white appearance • Boron is pure black and is a metalloid • Most are relatively lightweight and soft • Boron is extremely hard • Solids at room temperature • Higher boiling than the alkaline earth metal

  10. Carbon Group – Group 14 • Increase in metallic character as you go down the group • C can be a black powder, a soft, slippery gray solid, a hard, transparent solid, or an orange red solid. • Si can be a brown powder or a shiny gray solid. • Ge is a shiny gray white solid that breaks easily

  11. Pnictogen Group – Group 15 • Increase in metallic character as you go down the group • N is a colorless, odorless gas • P can be found as a white, red, or black solid • As is a shiny gray solid that is brittle • Sb is a shiny silver gray solid that is very brittle • Bi is a shiny gray solid that has pink cast to it. It is one of the least conductive metals.

  12. Chalcogen Group – Group 16 • At room temp, O is a clear, odorless gas, while the other elements are solids. • S is pale yellow, odorless, and brittle • Se can be a red powder or gray solid • Po has 27 known isotopes and all are radioactive

  13. Halogens – Group 17 • At room temperature: • F is a pale yellow gas • Cl is a yellow green gas • Br is a red brown liquid • Iodine is a blue black solid that easily sublimes • Diatomic • React readily with alkali metals and alkaline earth metals • Fluorine is the most active of all of the elements

  14. Noble Gases – Group 18 • Odorless, colorless gases • Lower boiling and melting points than other groups • Monoatomic • Mostly inert (don’t react)