slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Technical HyperText and the Non-native Reader: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framings PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Technical HyperText and the Non-native Reader: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framings

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Technical HyperText and the Non-native Reader: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framings - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on

Technical HyperText and the Non-native Reader: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framings. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ lawrie_hunter@kochi-tech.ac.jp. Technical hypertext design: user-specs.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Technical HyperText and the Non-native Reader: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framings' - hilde


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Technical HyperText

and the Non-native Reader:

Information Structures

and Rhetorical Framings

Lawrie Hunter

Kochi University of Technology

http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/

lawrie_hunter@kochi-tech.ac.jp

slide2

Technical hypertext design:

user-specs

Brown and Duguid's "Stolen Knowledge"

Lave's Situated Learning

Pre-prototyping:

Learner design for deepened "architectural" vision

-low-tech cognitive apprenticeship

slide3

The non-native reader/writer

a.k.a. the L2* reader/writer

This target user group

has a full set of intellectual skills in L1,

but linguistic differences and differences in practice

make L2 technical English difficult to access or imitate.

* second language

slide4

How do readers read?

Reading models

Chun & Plass

(1997)

Metaphoric

approach

Reading components

approach

Grabe

(1991)

Automatic

recognition

skills

Bottom-up

processing

Top-down

processing

Interactive

processing

Vocabulary

knowledge,

background

knowledge

(Text-driven

processing)

(knowledge-driven

processing)

World

background

knowledge

Synthesis/evaluation

skills, strategies

Discourse

structure

knowledge

Metacognitive

knowledge,

skills monitoring

slide5

How do readers read?

The reader’s

understanding

of text

Text

accessibility

Reader

resources

Background

knowledge

Structure

knowledge

Text

structure

knowledge

Knowledge

structure

knowledge

slide6

How do non-native readers read?

Non-native

reader

Native

reader

Jumps more readily

from dense text to

-titles

-lists

-graphics

Better at holding in mind

the construction

of a piece of text

while reading

Much of attention goes to

higher level processes

e.g. generating inferences

e.g. knowledge associations

Pays more attention to

low level processes

-e.g. word identification

Cognitive load increased by

-unsure meanings

-complex syntactical structures

-unknown rhetorical devices

slide7

The NNR/W and academic text

The non-native writer (NNW) of technical English,

for example the Japanese engineering student,

is attempting a multi-level orchestration of

rhetorical moves and information elements,

where information is framed by such moves as

citation, observation, and analysis,

which are in turn framed by

overarching moves such as

accepting, rejecting, questioning and proposing.

slide8

Considerate texts

The NNW typically acquires

1. English technical writing knowledge

through the observation, analysis and mimicry of model texts,

and

2. English technical writing skill

through the monitored application of that knowledge.

This points to a need for 'considerate' model texts

which distinguish between information elements and rhetorical moves.

slide9

A need for academic hypertext:

It is better

toexperience

the truth of something

than

to be told ofthe truth of something.

slide10

A need for academic hypertext:

David Kolb* re using hypertext to present scholarly text:

"...the easiest ways of making a complex argument available in HT

tend to move the text toward linear structures

that do not take full advantage of the possibilities of linked text."

"...what the HT can do is present the argument,

but also use linkage and juxtaposition

to make the reader’s engagement with the argument

more creative, self-conscious, and self-critical."

*in a talk to KMI at the Open University

slide11

A need for academic hypertext:

Lawrie Hunterre using hypertext to present technical text::

For the L2 reader,

engagement can only be enhanced

if the rhetorical and information structures are articulated.

What the HT can do for the NNR/W is

present simultaneously the various faces of a research paper:

the text;

necessary glosses;

the bits of structured information;

the rhetorical moves.

And if the NNR/Ws each design their personal interface,

a negotiated pattern language of NNR/W EAP will emerge.

slide12

A need for academic hypertext:

  • extensive reading
  • to allow the NNR/W* to develop
  • global comprehension
          • *Non-Native Reader/Writer (of English
  • Hypertext as a
  • thinking-aloud-about-structure-and-rhetoric
  • device.
  • NNR/Ws discovering a
  • pattern language for EAP
slide13

A need for academic hypertext:

"Tomorrow's literacies...need to be

process and systems literacies."

-John Thackara,

In the Bubble: designing in a complex world.

MIT Press 2005.

slide14

A need for academic hypertext:

enhance L2 reader involvement

For the L2 reader, engagement can only be enhanced

if the rhetorical and information structures are articulated.

Thus:

Needs analysis

Wants analysis

slide15

L2 reader needs analysis

Language skills

Argument

sequencing

Info-structured

sentence generation

Model mimicry

Knowledge

Niche

grammar structures

Niche

rhetorical structures

General register repertoires

(distinguishing

formal academic from

informal academic)

Research Paper

text structure and

information structure

Facilities

Concordance & collocation resource

Bank of model

research papers

(annotated*)

*c.f. Brown and Brown’s ‘annotation’

slide16

L2 reader wants analysis

In a technical hypertext, L2 reader/writers want*:

1. Glossing (of 'difficult' terms and phrases)

2. Moves indicator

3. Lexia position indicator

4. PDF drawer-like phrase recurrence tab

5. Register converter

(e.g. research paper <=> presentation script)

6. Information structure maps for atomic utterances

(similar to Horn's argument maps

or Rhetorical Structure Analysis?)

7. Overall argument map on every lexia

(unlike Socrates in the Labyrinth)

*Based on a survey of 22 PhD engineering students

slide17

Technical hypertext design:

NEEDS

A pattern language?

www.patternlanguage.com

WANTS

  • …The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves.
  • Christopher Alexander,
  • The Timeless Way of Building
slide18

<

$$$

!

Do humans have a

GRAPHIC THOUGHT FACILITY?

The knowledge structure map is a matrix (confluence) for the

situated learner* and the situated mentor to confirm context

and the nature of "stolen property."**

*Jean Lave

**Duguid and Brown

slide19

HT design: Glossing vs. feature signalling

Research suggests that L2 readers overuse glossing

and even click extensively on unmarked text

which may or may not be links.

Research suggests that L2 readers frequently

exit, go back excessively, and give up on

complex hypertexts.

Strategy: specific instruction in text structures,

rhetorical structures and information structure signals.

Strategy: "extensive reading"

of heavily annotated* sample hypertexts.

*cf. Brown and Brown

slide20

Current project: design level

  • Now Hunter's EEAP* students are working on HT designs
  • for the analysis of technical academic papers.
  • Our brainstormed prototype layout is shown below.
  • Student hypertexts will be on the web at
  • lawriehunter.com before long.
  • *Engineering English for Academic Purposes,
  • a subset of EAP
  • which is a subset of ESP (English for Specific Purposes)
slide21

Considerate hypertexts?

  • The difficulty of decoding text models can be further eased
  • by presenting the information elements in a model text
  • as low-text information maps.
  • At this point in the development of model text,
  • hypertext is a useful mode of presentation,
  • given its flexibility of manipulation of (multiple) views.
  • However, informal user surveys suggest that
  • successful use of hypertext for considerate technical text
  • calls for some degree of explicit signalling
  • not only of content structure
  • but also of both utterance intent (rhetorical move)
  • and lexia position within the greater document.
slide22

TEXT

STRUCTURE

Introduction

Background

Question

Methods and

materials

Results

Observations

Conclusion

RHETORICAL

MOVES

Common

knowledge

Cite

Report

Explain

Claim

Question

Qualify

Evaluate

Decide

Infer

Project

INFO

STRUCTURE

Describe

Classify

Compare

Sequence

Cause-effect

Contrast

INFOMAP(s)

UTTERANCE(s)

In general, power plants boil some liquid to make steam, which rotates turbines, which generate electricity.

Power plants boil a liquid to produce steam, which is used to rotate turbines, which in turn generate electricity.

slide23

TEXT

STRUCTURE

Introduction

Background

Question

Methods and

materials

Results

Observations

Conclusion

RHETORICAL

MOVES

Common

knowledge

Cite

Report

Explain

Claim

Question

Qualify

Evaluate

Decide

Infer

Project

INFO

STRUCTURE

Describe

Classify

Compare

Sequence

Cause-effect

Contrast

INFOMAP(s)

UTTERANCE(s)

Traditional power plants use fossil fuel heat or heat from nuclear fission to boil water and produce steam at 500°C.

Older type power plants boil water with heat from fossil fuel combustion or nuclear fission to produce steam with a temperature of 500°C.

slide24

TEXT

STRUCTURE

Introduction

Background

Question

Methods and

materials

Results

Observations

Conclusion

RHETORICAL

MOVES

Common

knowledge

Cite

Report

Explain

Claim

Question

Qualify

Evaluate

Decide

Infer

Project

INFO

STRUCTURE

Describe

Classify

Compare

Sequence

Cause-effect

Contrast

INFOMAP(s)

UTTERANCE(s)

OTEC power plants use seawater heat to boil ammonia and produce steam at 20°C.

OTEC type power plants boil ammonia with the heat of the sea to produce steam with a temperature of 20°C.

slide25

TEXT

STRUCTURE

Introduction

Background

Question

Methods and

materials

Results

Observations

Conclusion

RHETORICAL

MOVES

Common

knowledge

Cite

Report

Explain

Claim

Question

Qualify

Evaluate

Decide

Infer

Project

INFO

STRUCTURE

Describe

Classify

Compare

Sequence

Cause-effect

Contrast

INFOMAP(s)

UTTERANCE(s)

Traditional power plants use fossil fuel heat or heat from nuclear fission to boil water and produce steam at 500°C, whereas OTEC type power plants boil ammonia using the heat of the sea to produce steam with a temperature of 20°C.

Older type power plants boil water with heat from fossil fuel combustion or nuclear fission to produce steam with a temperature of 500°C, while OTEC power plants use seawater heat to boil ammonia and produce steam at 20°C.