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Organizational Text Structures. Why the need for organizational text structures? To help the reader understand the information presented. Consider your purpose when recognizing a text structure. External Text Structures

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organizational text structures

Organizational Text Structures

Why the need for organizational text structures? To help the reader understand the information presented.

Consider your purpose when recognizing a text structure

slide2

External Text Structures

External text structures are found outside the main body of text. They include:

  • Italics
  • Bold
  • Underlining
  • Indentation
  • Sidebars
  • Pictures and graphics
  • Headings and subheadings
  • Footnotes
slide3

Internal Text StructuresInternal text structure is how the main body of the text is organized. It will be organized a certain way depending on its purpose. There are 7 different internal structures:

  • Cause and Effect
  • Comparison and Contrast
  • Enumeration/Listing
  • Sequential or Chronological
  • Concept/Definition
  • Generalization
  • Process
sequential chronological
Sequential/Chronological
  • It tells the order of facts, events, or concepts
  • Signal words/phrases:
      • Today * Next
      • Meanwhile
      • First
      • Now
      • Not long ago
      • Finally

Examples: timelines, records of history events

comparison and contrast
Comparison and Contrast
  • Tells how facts, people, and events and concepts are similar and different
  • Signal words/phrases:
    • Similarly
    • On the other hand
    • However
    • Yet
    • In spite of
cause and effect
Cause and Effect
  • Tells how fact, events, people, concepts happen or exist because of other facts
  • Signal words/phrases:
    • As a result of
    • Consequently
    • So that
    • Because of
    • Since

Examples: history books, science books

enumeration listing
Enumeration/Listing
  • Tells a listing of facts and events in no special order
  • Signal words/phrases:
    • Also
    • Another
    • Several
    • First

Examples: grocery list, listing of examples

concept definition
Concept/Definition
  • Tells the explanation or description of a concept or topic by using synonyms and signal words
  • Signal words/phrases:
    • Refers to
    • Thus
    • In other words
    • Described as
    • Equals

Example: textbooks, encyclopedias

generalization
Generalization
  • A statement about a whole group. Could be too broad and not based on fact. Often the word "all" will make a generalization untrue ."All trees lose their leaves in the fall.”
  • Signal words/phrases:
    • Always
    • In fact

Examples: editorials, advertising

process
Process
  • Tells the procedure or process for how something is done/created
  • Signal words/phrases:
    • Begins with
    • In order to

Examples: cookbooks, how-to books, science textbooks