The Civil War Chapter 16 Pages 506-547
North/Union • President – Lincoln • Commander General of the Union • General George B. McClellan • General Ambrose E. Burnside • General Joseph Hooker • General Ulysses S. Grant
South/Confederacy • President – Jefferson Davis • Commander General of the Confederacy – Robert E. Lee
Section 1: The War Begins Pages 510-515
The War Begins • The Big Idea • Civil war broke out between the North and the South in 1861. • Main Ideas • Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides. • The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war.
Lincoln’s Goals • At the beginning of the Civil War Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union. • After the war progressed, Lincoln issued the Emancipation and the Civil War changed to a war on slavery.
Section 1: 1. Which fort did Confederates attack in 1861 that marked the official beginning of the Civil War? Page 511 Fort Sumter
Seven southern states seceded as Lincoln took office. Lincoln refused to recognize secession and tried desperately to save the nation. Confederate officials began seizing federal-mint branches, arsenals, and military posts. Main Idea 1: Following the outbreak of war at Fort Sumter, Americans chose sides.
For Sumter was a Federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina. Confederate forces asked for its surrender. Lincoln refused and sent ships with supplies. Confederate cannons began firing on April 12, 1861. Fort Sumter fell 34 hours later. The Civil War began. Fall of Fort Sumter
Reaction of Lincoln’s Call Lincoln declared the South was in rebellion and asked state governors for 75,000 militiamen; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and states north of them rallied. Slave states of the Upper South—North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Arkansas—seceded. BorderStates—Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri—were slave states that did not join the Confederacy, but people were divided on the war. Western Virginia supported the Union and set up its own state government as West Virginia in 1863.
Section 1: 2. What were the Border States between the North and South? Page 512 • Delaware • Kentucky • Maryland • Missouri
Section 1: 3. What were the Strengths and Weaknesses of the North and the South at the start of the Civil War? Pages 512-513 Quick Facts Chart North Strengths South Strengths Greater Production of Cotton Military Tradition Fighting on home soil Southern farms provided food for armies • Greater population to recruit soldiers from • Most important advantage was its transportation network: thousands of miles of roads, railroads, and canals that could help move supplies and troops throughout the region • More Industrial Establishments • More Exports • Stronger more developed Economy
Section 1: 3. What were the Strengths and Weaknesses of the North and the South at the start of the Civil War? Pages 512-513 Quick Facts Chart North Weaknesses South Weaknesses Lack of economy and banking system The South had more than one currency; some states printed their own money which led to financial chaos Lower population than the North; fewer soldiers • Fighting in enemy territory
Northern and Southern Resources • The North • Population of 22 million • Some 22,000 miles of railroad track • More developed economy, banking system, and currency • Strategy—General Winfield Scott planned to blockade southern ports and to capture Mississippi River to divide the South. • The South • Strong military tradition that put many smart officers into battle • Advantages of fighting on home soil – only had to defend itself until the North grew tired of fighting • Strategy—tried to win foreign allies through cotton diplomacy: idea that Britain would support Confederacy because it needed the South’s cotton
Volunteer armies would fight the battles. Thousands of men joined the armies. Civilians helped those in uniform. Raised money, ran hospitals, served as nurses Sent supplies to troops Both armies faced shortages of clothing, food, and weapons. Volunteers had to learn the military basics of marching, shooting, and using bayonets. Main Idea 2:The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war.
Section 1: 4. What was the Union goal to gain control of the west? Page 513 • To gain control of the Mississippi River
Section 1: 5. How did the Union and Confederate armies build up their troops? Page 514 They relied on volunteers.
Section 1: 6. What was the main problem for the Confederate and union armies when preparing for war? Page 514 • Most soldiers were inexperienced and undisciplined
Section 1: 7. Compare and contrast the Military Strategies of the U.S.A. and the C.S.A. during the Civil War. Pages 512-513 Union/U.S.A. Confederate/C.S.A. To win foreign allies through cotton diplomacy, the idea that Britain would support the Confederacy because it needed the South’s cotton To wear down the North and to capture Washington, D.C. the Union capital • To blockade southern ports and to capture the Mississippi River • To capture Richmond, Virginia the Confederate Capital
Section 2: The War In the East Pages 516-521
The War in the East • The Big Idea • Confederate and Union forces faced off in Virginia and at sea. • Main Ideas • Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia. • The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage. • The Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade.
First major battle of Civil War in Virginia, in July 1861 Union army of 35,000 under General Irvin McDowell Confederate army of 22,000 under General Pierre G. T. Beauregard Clashed at Bull Run Creek near Manassas Additional 10,000 Confederates arrived Confederate troops under General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson held against Union advance Confederates counterattacked Union troops retreated Confederates won First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas Main Idea 1:Union and Confederate forces fought for control of the war in Virginia.
Section 2: 1. What was significant about the Battle of Bull Run? Page 517 • The Northern defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War and crushed the Union’s hope of winning the war quickly
Section 2: 2. Why did Union General George B. McClellan hesitate before launching an attack on the Confederate army in 1862? Page 517 • McClellan had overestimated the size of the confederate army.
More Battles in Virginia General George B. McClellan was placed in charge of 100,000 soldiers, called the Army of the Potomac. McClellan launched an effort to capture Richmond called the Peninsular Campaign. Stonewall Jackson launched an attack towards Washington, preventing Union reinforcements. Confederate army in Virginia was under the command of General Robert E. Lee.Lee attacked Union forces in series of clashes called Seven Days’ Battles and forced Union army to retreat in June 1862. Lincoln ordered General John Pope to march to Richmond. Jackson’s troops stopped Pope’s army before it met up with the other Union army. The Second Battle of Bull Run,or Second Battle of Manassas, was fought in August 1862; Confederates again forced a Union retreat.
Confederate leaders wanted to follow Lee’s victories in Virginia with victory on northern soil. Lee’s Confederate troops and McClellan’s Union army met along Antietam Creek in Maryland on September 17, 1862. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history, with more than 12,000 Union and 13,000 Confederate casualties. Also called the Battle of Sharpsburg It was an important victory for the Union, stopping Lee’s northward advance. Main Idea 2: The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage.
Section 2: 3. Which army gained the advantage in the Battle of Antietam? Page 519 • North • Despite this blunder Antietam was an important victory. Lee’s northward advance had been stopped
Section 2: 4. Which would be a possible news headline in a Northern newspaper the day after the Battle of Antietam? Page 519 • Union Gains an Edge on the Confederacy
Born into wealthy Virginia family in 1807 Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point Fought in Mexican-American War Lincoln asked Lee to lead Union army at start of Civil War. Lee declined and resigned from the Union Army to become a Confederate general. Robert E. Lee
Union navy controlled the sea and blockaded southern ports. The southern economy was hurt because the South was prevented from selling and receiving goods. Some small, fast ships got through blockade, but the number of ships entering southern ports was reduced from 6,000 to 800 a year. Main Idea 3: The Confederacy attempted to break the Union naval blockade.
Section 2: 5. Why did the Union find it difficult to maintain the blockade it set up to control southern ports? Page 520 • The Union navy had to patrol thousands of miles of coastline.
The Confederacy turned to a new type of warship—ironclads, or ships heavily armored with iron. The Confederacy Captured Union ship Merrimack,turned it into ironclad, and renamed it the Virginia. Ironclads successfully attacked the wooden ships of the Union. Met by a Union ironclad, the Monitor,in battle near Hampton Roads, Virginia, in March 1862 and it forced the Confederates to withdraw Designed by John Ericsson Had a revolving gun tower and thick plating The Monitor’s success saved the Union fleet and continued the blockade. Clash of the Ironclads
Section 2: 6. What feature made the new warships developed by the South dangerous to the Union Army? Page 520 • The ships were heavily armored with thick metal plating (iron).
Section 2: 7. What type of warship did the South develop to take away the North’s advantage at sea? Page 520 • Ironclad
Section 2: 8. Map page 520: Which part of General Winfield Scott’s two-part strategy does this political cartoon illustrate? Page 520 • The cartoon shows Scott’s plan to destroy the South’s economy. The giant snake, which represents the Union, shows the North’s power and ability to crush the South’s economy.
Section 2: 9. What was the significance of the Battle of Antietam? Page 519 • The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle of in U.S. history, with more than 12,000 Union and 13,000 Confederate causalities • Union forces stopped Lee’s advance into the North and Lee lost many of his troops
Section 3: War in the West Pages 522-527
The War in the West • The Big Idea • Fighting in the Civil War spread to the western United States. • Main Ideas • Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River. • Confederate and Union troops struggled for dominance in the Far West.
Ulysses S. Grant was commander of Union forces in West Bold and restless, he wanted to attack. Western campaign focused on taking control of Mississippi River. Would cut off eastern part of Confederacy from food sources in West Union could use bases along the Mississippi to attack communication and transportation networks. Grant’s Army of Tennessee captured Confederate forts on Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in February 1862. Both sides claimed victory in bloody two-day Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, but Grant’s forces had driven Confederates back into Mississippi. Main Idea 1:Union strategy in the West centered on control of the Mississippi River.
U.S. Navy moved upriver to meet Grant, who was moving down the Mississippi. First obstacle was the port of New Orleans—largest Confederate city and gateway to the Mississippi. Fleet under Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans in April 1862. He then took Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Natchez, Mississippi. The Fall of New Orleans
Farragut ordered surrender of strategic Vicksburg, Mississippi, in May 1863. Location on 200-foot-high cliffs above the Mississippi made invasion nearly impossible. Grant decided to starve the city into surrender; began Siege of Vicksburg in mid-May. Facing starvation, city surrendered on July 4, 1863. Siege of Vicksburg