Self-assembly in Nature
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Self-assembly in Nature. Nano. Self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules. spherical micelles. cylindrical micelles. nanotubes. vesicles (liposomes). Drug delivery systems. Direct conjugation of drugs or therapeutic proteins to macromolecules such as polymers and proteins.

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Self assembly in nature

spherical micelles

cylindrical

micelles

nanotubes

vesicles (liposomes)


Self assembly in nature

Drug delivery systems

  • Direct conjugation of drugs or therapeutic proteins

  • to macromolecules such as polymers and proteins.




Self assembly in nature

The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect vesicles

Macromolecules cannot pass through the capillary walls of normal tissue. The entry of macromolecules into tumor tissue takes place in the capillaries where blood flow is diminished and nutrients transfer into the tissue. In contrast to the blood capillaries in most normal tissues, the endothelial layer of the capillaries in the tumor tissue is fenestrated and leaky so that macromolecules and other nanoparticles reach the malignant tissue. Tumor tissue generally has a defective lymphatic drainage system with the result that macromolecules are retained and can subsequently accumulate in solid tumors.


Self assembly in nature

DLS vesicles

Release of Calcein

18nm

pH 5

pH 7

pH 7

3nm

pH 5

pH drop

1

10

100

Vesicle

d = 36 nm

Micelle

d = 6 nm

Radius (nm)

pH-Responsive Nanocapsules

HCl

J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004,126, 12724



Self assembly in nature

Antigen vesicles

Carbohydrate – Protein Multivalent Interactions

antigen

carbohydrate

Kiessling et. al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2002, 124, 14922.


Self assembly in nature

Mannose-Coated Supramolecules vesicles

lectinprotein

d= 40 nm

d= 20 nm

d= 10 nm

12

23

100 nm

100 nm

glycocluster

50 nm

Galactose

Micelle

Cylinder

Sphere

Vesicle

2

1

3

Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay

n.d.

J. Am. Chem. Soc.2005, 127,16333

Chem. Commun.2005, 2035

J. Am. Chem. Soc.2007, in press


Self assembly in nature

Selective Binding of Supramolecules to Bacterial Cells vesicles

E. coli

E. coli

pili

Binding to

E. coli ORN 178

TEM

100 nm

100 nm

100 nm

E. Coli (ORN 208)

E. Coli (ORN 178) + cylinders

E. Coli (ORN 178) + spheres


Self assembly in nature

= vesicles

=

D-mannose-binding protein

Selective-binding

+

Pathogen

Pathogen

ß-sheet assembly

Binding of Bacterial Cells