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Cayman Captive Forum Presentation 2013. Captive / Actuarial 101. Julie E. Robertson Partner. Joseph A. Herbers Managing Principal. Fiona J. Moseley President & Director.

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Cayman Captive Forum Presentation 2013

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Presentation Transcript

Julie E. Robertson


Joseph A. Herbers

Managing Principal

Fiona J. Moseley

President & Director


" Everything you wanted to know and were afraid to ask… An introductory session to cover practical guidelines on legal, actuarial and regulatory matters during the formation and operational stages of a new captive."

what is a captive
What is a Captive?
  • The most simple definition: a licensed insurance company formed to insure the risks of its owners

But the world is more complicated

        • RRGs; cell companies (SPCs), agency captives, rent-a-captives, micro captives, branch captives, reciprocals, series LLCs, portfolio insurance companies (PICs)
  • If you’ve seen one captive . . . you’ve only seen one captive!
  • Array of models provides flexibility, but creates the need for expertise and evaluation of the options in formation
what is a captive1
What is a Captive?
  • A licensed insurance company
  • Regulated in a state or country (domicile) that has unique laws for captives
        • They typically vest a great deal of authority in the regulator and are less stringent than laws regulating commercial carriers
  • Owners/insureds involved in governance
  • Often have no employees but are managed by contracted service providers
captive feasibility studies outline
Captive Feasibility Studies - Outline
  • What is a Captive Feasibility Study
  • What are Actuaries?
  • Actuarial Involvement in Captive Feasibility Study
  • Dealing with Uncertainty
  • Predicting the Future
captive feasibility studies
Captive Feasibility Studies
  • Data Analysis
  • Loss Estimates
  • Capitalization Requirements
  • Domicile
  • Tax Issues
  • Coverages, Retentions, Limits
  • Expenses
  • Reinsurance Costs
  • Regulatory Issues
  • Pro forma Financials
actuaries captive feasibility studies
Actuaries & Captive Feasibility Studies
  • Projecting the future as regards:
    • Premiums
    • Losses
    • Loss Adjustment Expenses
    • Captive expenses
      • Acquisition, general, taxes
      • Reinsurance costs
  • Capitalization Requirements
  • Investment Returns
what is an actuary
What is an Actuary?
  • Insurance professional skilled in measuring and quantifying risk
  • Typically a math or statistics major in college
  • Schooled in all aspects of insurance operations

- Claims - Accounting

- Underwriting - Ratemaking

- Marketing - Reinsurance

- Legal - Systems/IT

what does an actuary do
What does an Actuary do?
  • Quite simply – Predict the Future
  • Ratemaking – Figure out what premiums to charge for variety of coverages, limits and deductibles
  • Loss Funding Studies – Projecting future costs so insurer or self-insured entity can budget costs
  • Loss and loss adjustment expense reserve accruals for financial reporting purposes
  • Retention Level Analysis
  • Exposure Modeling (CAT)
  • Risk Transfer in Reinsurance
essential background information
Essential Background Information
  • Business Plan
  • Historical premium, losses, claim counts & exposures for entity being considered
  • Domicile, Service Providers being considered
captive business plan
Captive Business Plan
  • Key management of enterprise
    • Owner(s), officers, roles
  • Nature of underlying business being insured
  • Coverages
  • Retentions - both per occurrence and aggregate
  • Limits
  • Service Providers
data analysis
Data Analysis
  • Projecting Ultimate Losses
    • Start with current reported incurred losses
      • Adjust for retentions
      • Adjust for expected future loss development
      • Adjust for future trend
      • Adjust for changes in statutory benefit levels (WC)
    • Use multiple methods to project ultimate losses
    • Rely on a point estimate or reasonable range of ultimate losses
  • Project Ultimate Loss Ratio
  • Projecting Ultimate Losses
    • Start with current reported incurred losses
      • Adjust for retentions
      • Adjust for expected future loss development
      • Adjust for future trend
      • Adjust for changes in statutory benefit levels (WC)
    • Use multiple methods to project ultimate losses
    • Rely on a point estimate or reasonable range of ultimate losses
  • Project Ultimate Loss Ratio
  • Property/Casualty insurance business is characterized by lags (which give rise to need for IBNR)
uncertainty in projecting ultimate losses
Uncertainty in Projecting Ultimate Losses
  • Changes in rate of claim payments
  • Changes in case reserving practices
  • Changes in mix of exposure
  • Changes in retention limits
  • Changes in claim reporting procedures
data analysis1
Data Analysis
  • Projecting Expenses
    • Commissions/Brokerage
    • Fronting
    • Taxes, Licenses & Fees
    • General (audit, actuarial, legal)
    • Claims Handling
    • Reinsurance
    • Loss Control
    • Federal Excise Tax

Usually stated as % of either WP or EP

data analysis2
Data Analysis
  • Underwriting Profit
  • Investment Returns
    • Investment Income
      • Mix of investments by type (stocks, bonds, cash, other)
      • Expected returns by type
    • Realized Capital Gains/Losses
  • FIT
  • Dividends
pro forma financials run pessimistic base and optimistic scenarios
Pro Forma FinancialsRun Pessimistic, Base and Optimistic scenarios
  • Underwriting Exhibit
    • Projected premiums (direct / ceded / net)
    • Projected losses (premium x loss ratio)
    • Projected expenses
    • Dividends
    • Underwriting profit (by subtraction)
  • Balance Sheet
    • Assets, Liabilities & Surplus
pro forma financials run pessimistic base and optimistic scenarios1
Pro Forma FinancialsRun Pessimistic, Base and Optimistic scenarios
  • Income Statement
    • Underwriting Income, Investment Income, Other Income
    • Change in Surplus
      • Beginning Surplus
      • Capital Paid In
      • Net Income
      • Change in unrealized gains
      • Stockholder dividends
  • Cash Flow Statement
    • Beginning Cash
    • Inflows (premiums, investment income, paid-in capital)
    • Outflows (losses, expenses, taxes, dividends)
consideration of uncertainty
Consideration of Uncertainty
  • Reliance on actual data versus benchmarks and/or external data – less uncertainty if we have reliable data for entity being studied
  • Nature of historical data (# of years, consistency between years)
  • Examine reasonable range versus point estimate
predicting the future
Predicting the Future
  • We know our projections will not be absolutely correct
  • Objective is to have projections “in the right neighborhood” close to reality
  • Systematic pessimism or optimism is not good
  • With feasibility studies, we provide a range from pessimistic to optimistic
captive models
Captive Models

Single Parent Captive

Wholly owned insurance company established to insure/reinsure the risks of the single parent and/or its affiliates.





captive models1
Captive Models





Subsidiary 1


Subsidiary 2


Subsidiary 3

captive models2
Captive Models

Group Captive

Two or more owners form an insurance company to insure/reinsure risks of its owners (or their affiliates)






captive models3
Captive Models

Cell Captive (aka Segregated Cell Captive, Sponsored Captive, Segregated Portfolio Company)

One insurance company with separate “cells,” each cell with a separate insurance program and possibly a shareholder.

Ownership of Voting Stock of

the Captive, Appoints Board

Preferred X Shares


Cell X

Cell Y

Cell Z

Preferred Y Shares

Preferred Z Shares

captive models4
Captive Models

Risk Retention Group

Similar in structure to a group captive, but formed in a U.S. state under authority of Liability Risk Retention Act. All insureds must be owners, and all owners must be insureds – only authorized to write liability risk.





domicile selection
Domicile Selection

Other factors

Capital/surplus requirements

Operating costs

Political stability


Domicile meeting requirements

Local director requirements

Operating costs

Ease of travel

Perception, particularly for nonprofits

Availability of home state as a domicile

Unique characteristics of the domicile

  • Driving factors
    • Structure/Coverage Needs
    • Regulatory environment; history
    • Tax considerations
      • Onshore and offshore
      • Premium taxes
  • From the insured’s perspective
      • Is the premium deductible?
      • What are the premium taxes?
          • Domicile, US federal excise tax, state premium taxes
  • From the owners’ perspective
      • If offshore, are the owners subject to tax annually or only when distributions are made?
      • If offshore, is there “unrelated business taxable income” for the tax-exempt owners
  • From the captive’s perspective
      • Is it an insurance company for US tax purposes (ie, can deduct its loss reserves)?
      • If offshore, is it eligible to elect to be a US corporation for tax purposes (a 953(d) election)?
      • Is it eligible for a small company election (an 831(b) election)?
      • If offshore, are there withholding taxes on its income?
      • If offshore, controlled foreign corporation or not?
      • If offshore, does it intend to “conduct a U.S. trade or business”?
      • Are there opportunities for the captive to be a tax-exempt entity?

What’s most important:

  • Understand that taxable and tax-exempt organizations may have different tax motivations
  • Recognize that there is not certainty in this area and determine owners/insureds’ risk tolerance
  • Determine tax positions up front, not when returns are prepared
  • Make sure all stakeholders’ tax advisors are involved at the beginning
  • Document the business reasons for captive formation as support in case of future audit
  • Include tax calculations in pro formas and projections
direct write or fronted program
Direct Write or Fronted Program?
  • A captive typically is not licensed/approved/admitted in the jurisdiction in which the insureds are located and is treated as an “unauthorized insurer”
  • Can the captive write coverage directly or does it need a “front”?
      • State legal and regulatory requirements
      • Contractual requirements of insureds
      • Patient compensation funds
  • Does the captive intend to attract new insureds/have a desire to market the program?
  • Legal documents for formation:
      • US: Articles of Incorporation/Bylaws
      • Cayman: Memorandum of Association/Articles of Association
  • Other legal documents:
      • Shareholders agreement for group captives
      • Information circular/offering documents for group captives
      • Subscription agreement
  • License Application:
      • Pro formas
      • Actuarial projections
      • Business plan
      • Identification of service providers
      • Applications of directors and officers
initial operations
Initial Operations
  • Approval in principle sparks a flurry of activity
  • Put in place operational guidelines
  • Board of Directors guidance
  • Front Company and Reinsurance
  • Insurance Manager
  • Committees
  • Regulatory
approval in p rinciple s parks a flurry of a ctivity
Approval in Principle Sparks a Flurry of Activity
  • Incorporation
  • Subscribers Meeting
  • First Directors Meeting
  • Open Bank Account
  • License issued
put in place o perational g uidelines
Put in Place Operational Guidelines
  • Board of Directors
  • Front company
  • Reinsurers
  • Insurance Manager
  • Committees
      • Claims Management, Audit and actuarial, investment etc.
getting up and running
Getting Up and Running
  • Approve insurance arrangements
  • Engage service providers
      • Actuary, auditor, lawyer, investment manager, banker, insurance manager
  • Adopt operating budget
  • Approve investment policy
  • Other policies: claims payment, expense reimbursement

Congratulations: You’re running an insurance company!

board of directors g uidance
Board of Directors Guidance
  • Frequency of meetings, circulation of contact details and agreement of approval mechanism
  • Understand business plan and laws of operation
  • Mind and Management discussion

– who is driving the bus and from where?

  • Discuss and declare any conflicts and process around future conflicts
  • Appointment of Secretary and define role
  • Mandates for Committees
  • Signing Authority
corporate governance
Corporate Governance
  • Role of the Shareholders
  • Role of the Directors
  • Role of the Officers
  • Directors Duties
      • Fiduciary
      • Duty of care and skill
      • Minutes
      • Meetings
      • Engagement and oversight of service providers
front company and reinsurance
Front Company and Reinsurance
  • Review and sign agreements
  • Confirm logistics and reporting
insurance manager
Insurance Manager
  • Confirm responsibilities and expectations
  • Reporting deadlines
  • Information exchange
  • Financial Statement prep, Actuarial and Audit
  • Who is driving the bus?
  • Define make-up
  • Adopt the mandate
  • Review the business plan
  • 6 month check up
  • Financial Statement submission
  • Conformity to Business Plan
  • What if something go wrong?
success factors
Success Factors
  • Taking the long view
  • Management commitment
  • Adequate funding and capitalization
  • Group captives: documentation and fairness
  • Focus on risk management and mitigation
  • Conservatism in the early years