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Eco-Design VII. EU policy. Contents. Eco-design (ErP) directive The WEEE d irective RoHS directive. 1. Directive 2009/125/EC on the eco-design of Energy- related Products (E r P). Aim.

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contents
Contents
  • Eco-design (ErP) directive
  • The WEEE directive
  • RoHS directive
slide4
Aim

Promotion of sustainable development through free movement of ErP, environmental protection and increased security of energy supply

related legislation
Related legislation
  • Directive on management of waste from EEE based on Article 175
  • Directive on the restriction of certain hazardous substances in EEE based on Article 95
  • Existing legislation on minimum energy efficiency requirements based on Article 95
  • Eco-label, EMAS……
products covered
Products covered

In principle all energy sources are covered, in practice at first products using electricity or fuels

household appliances
Household Appliances
  • Washing machines
  • Clothes dryers
  • Dish washing machines
  • Electric ovens
  • Hot plates
  • Microwaves
  • Toasters
  • Fryers
  • Grinders, coffee machines and equipment for the opening or sealing of containers or packages
  • Electric knives
  • Other appliances for cooking, food processing, cleaning, clothes maintenance; appliances for hair cutting, har drying, tooth brushing, shaving, massaging and other body care appliances
  • Scales
it and consumer equipment
IT and Consumer Equipment
  • IT equipment
  • Radios
  • Televisions
  • Video cameras and recorders
  • Hi-fi recorders and audio amplifiers
  • Home theater systems
  • Music instruments
  • Toys, leisure and sports equipment
  • Electric trains or car racing sets
products not covered
Products Not Covered

(a) Voltage converters;(b) Uninterruptible power supplies;(c) Battery chargers; (d) Halogen lighting converters;(e) External power supplies for medical devices;(f) External power supplies placed on the market no later than 30 June 2015 as a service part or spare part for an identical external power supply which was placed on the market not later than one year after this Regulation has come into force, under the condition that the service part or spare part, or its packaging, clearly indicates the primary load product(s) for which the spare part or service part is intended to be used with.

(g) Means of transport

e r p features structure
ErP features :Structure
  • ErP framework does not create immediate obligations for manufacturers but allows the Commission to do so through implementing measures
  • Implementing measures are adopted by the Commission assisted by a regulatory Committee
  • They define eco-design requirements, conformity assessment procedures and implementation dates
  • Impact assessment precedes the submission of Commission draft measures)
  • Stakeholders participate throughout the whole process (studies, impact assessments, consultations, preparatory discussions within the Committee)
eco design requirements
Eco-design requirements
  • Generic, aiming at the improvement of the overall environmental performance, focusing on environmental aspects identified in the implementing measure

and/or

  • Specific, in the form of limit values or thresholds for selected environmental aspects with a significant adverse impact on the environment
implementing measures
Implementing measures

Implementing measures are proposed for products which:

  • represent a significant volume of sales and trade in the internal market (indicative threshold 200 000 units/year) and
  • involve a significant environmental impact and
  • present a significant potential for improvement

The entire life cycle of the product will be considered

Other aspects (product performance, health&safety, impact on consumers, manufacturers’ competitiveness) are taken into account

erp stand by off mode implementing measure
ErP: Stand By Off Mode Implementing Measure

The Implementing Measure (IM) for stand by/off mode was adopted in December 2008 by the European Commission and came into force on January 7th, 2009.

This is the first implementing measure under the ErP Directive enforced. The purpose of the Stand by/off mode Regulation is to ensure the lowest possible energy use of all household and office products in passive standby and off modes.

stand by off mode limits
Stand by/off mode Limits

Power consumption data in Watts rounded to the second decimal place

  • By January 7, 2010: Off Mode not to exceed 1.00W consumption
  • By January 7, 2010: Standby Mode not to exceed 1.00W; or 2.00W if providing information or status display
  • By January 7, 2013: Off Mode not to exceed 0.50W consumption
  • By January 7, 2013: Standby Mode not to exceed 0.50W; or 1.00W if providing information or status display
implemeting measure on simple set top boxes
Implemeting measure on simple set-top boxes

(Set-top boxes are used in cable television and satellite television systems, to transform the signal from the cable or satellite to a form that can be used by the television set or other receiver)

implementing measure on tertiary lighting
Implementing measure on tertiary lighting

Sets requirements for linear and compact fluorescent lamps

  • Requirements on minimum lumen maintenance levels
  • From 2017 (eight years after the regulation takes effect) all fluroescent lamps must be designed to work with an electronic ballast.
  • From 2012 new luminaires must be sold with electronic ballasts and from 2017 magnetic ballasts will not be permitted even for replacement in existing luminaires.
  • Minimum performance requirements for HID (High intensity discharge) lamps, which means phasing out of HPM (High-pressure mercury) lamps, although the largest wattages are phased out first.
  • 90 % of the HPS (High-pressure sodium) lamps should have a life time of more than 16000 h.
  • Metal halogen lamps should have a minimum life time of 12000 h
  • Requirements of directional light sources for street lighting luminaires (not only HID) to reduce light pollution.
  • Minimum performance requirements for all HID lamps to minimize mercury content
implementing measure on electric motors
Implementing measure on electric motors
  • From 2011: Minimum energy performance at the IE2 efficiency level
  • From 2015: Minimum energy performance at the IE3 efficiency level, or IE2 if the motor is combined with a Variable Speed Drive (VSD)
  • From 2017: Minimum energy performance at the IE3 efficiency level for all motors
implementing measure on circulators in buildings
Implementing measure on circulators in buildings
  • glandless impeller pumps up to 2500W
  • used primarily for central heating systems
  • mainly used for the circulation of water in heater applications in buildings
  • From 2013: minimum energy performance of EEI 0,27
  • From 2015: minimum energy performance of EEI 0,23

EEI – ratio between annual consumption of the appliance and a standard consumption of a typical similar model

implementing measure on televisions
Implementing measure on televisions
  • Off mode: 0,3 - 0,5 W
  • Standby: 0,5 - 1,0 W (depending on reactivation function etc)
  • Energy labelling requirements for televisions
  • In 2014, 2017 and 2020 the efficiency classes A+, A++ and A+++ would be introduced.
implementing measure on refrigerators and freezers
Implementing measure on refrigerators and freezers

Compression-type refrigerating appliances:

  • From 1 July 2010: EEI < 55
  • From 1 July 2012: EEI < 44
  • From 1 July 2014:EEI < 42

Absorption-type and other-type refrigerating appliances:

  • From 1 July 2010: EEI < 150
  • From 1 July 2012: EEI < 125
  • From 1 July 2015: EEI < 110

Three new energy classes: A+, A++ and A+++

other implementing measures endorsed
Other implementing measures endorsed

Domestic washing machines

Domestic dishwashers

Ventilation fans

drafted regulation
Drafted regulation:
  • Room air conditioning appliances
studies completed
Studies completed
  • Boilers
  • Water heaters
  • PC-s and computer monitors
  • Imaging equipment
  • Residential ventilation and kitchen hoods
  • Electric pumps
  • Commercial refrigerators and freezers
  • Refrigerating and freezing equipment
  • Distribution and power transfomers
  • Solid fuel small combustion installations
  • Laundry driers
  • Vacuum cleaners
  • Complex set-top boxes
  • Directional lighting
  • Non-tertiary coffee machines
  • Networked standby losses
  • Sound and imaging equipment
  • Medical imaging equipment
studies ongoing
Studies ongoing
  • Local room heatng products
  • Central heating products
  • Domestic and commercial ovens
  • Domestic and commercial hobs and grills
  • Professional wet appliances and dryers
  • Tertiary air conditionng
  • Uninterruptible power supplies
  • Pumps for waste waters
  • Large pumps and pumps for pools, fountains, aquariums
  • Special motors
  • Compressors
  • Industrial ovens
  • Machine tools
harmonised standards in support of the e r p framework
Harmonised standards in support of the ErP framework

“……………..

.(25) One of the main roles of harmonised standards should be to help manufacturers in applying the implementing measures adopted under this Directive. Such standards could be essential in establishing measuring and testing methods. In the case of generic ecodesign requirements harmonised standards could contribute considerably to guiding manufacturers in establishing the ecological profile of their products in accordance with the requirements of the applicable implementing measure. These standards should clearly indicate the relationship between their clauses and the requirements dealt with. The purpose of harmonised standards should not be to fix limits for environmental aspects.

(26) For the purpose of definitions used in this Directive it is useful to refer to relevant international standards such as ISO 14040.

………………………………………… »

harmonised standards in support of the e r p framework continued
Harmonised standards in support of the ErP framework (continued)
  • Harmonised standards provide presumption of conformity with the provisions of the applicable implementing measure that they cover (Article 8) i.e., the application of several harmonised standards may be necessary for demonstrating compliance with the implementing measure
  • Standardisation can provide a valuable support for the implementation of ErP
  • standards may be used for defining measurement and testing methods
  • they may also be used to support and guide the assessment of the environmental performance of the product (Annex I) and for communication purposes (Annex I, part 2)
  • standardisation should not be used to tackle political issues, such as fixing a limit for a given environmental aspect
the e r p mandate scope
The ErP mandate – scope

The ErP mandate : a programming mandate

Standardisation efforts on the following items should be considered, in particular regarding:

  • use of materials derived from recycling activities
  • use of substances …..
  • use of consumables
  • energy consumption throughout the life cycle
  • water consumption throughout the life cycle
  • Ease for reuse and recycling as expressed through: number of materials and components used, marking of plastics according to ISO, use of standard components, time necessary for disassembly

……………………………………………………………………………………….

the e r p mandate scope continued
The ErP mandate – scope (continued)

Shall be taken into account:

  • Other standards (e.g. the measurement standards for energy labelling or efficiency requirements)
  • guidance documents and technical reports currently available or in preparation in this area at a national or international level (e.g. ISO TR 14062, IEC Guide 109, ISO Guide 64, ISO 14020 series),
  • specifications established by interested organisations such as manufacturers’ associations; best practices in industry
the e r p mandate stakeholders participation
The ErP mandate – stakeholders’ participation

“ ……The elaboration of the standardisation programme should be undertaken in co-operation with the broadest possible range of interested groups, including international and European level associations. Those involved should include manufacturers and installers of energy-using products, including SME’s; consumers; environment NGO’s; the waste treatment industry; the competent authorities of the Member States as well as members of the scientific community. In particular, co-operation with environment non-governmental organisations and with organisations representing SME’s is regarded as essential….”

summary
Summary
  • ErP aims at the sustainable development of energy-using products and deals with product design
  • It is a framework Directive; legal obligations for manufacturers will come with the implementing measures
  • Those will be adopted by a transparent process (stakeholder consultation) and adequate analysis (impact assessment)
  • Priority is given to self-regulatory activities by industry
website
Website

http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/eco_design/index.htm

slide39

2. The WEEE Directive

Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment

Objectives

A Producer Responsibility Directive aimed at reducing waste from electrical and electronic products by increasing recovery and recycling and minimising environmental impact.

slide40

WEEE and RoHS Directives

the history

* 10 years of debate

* Wide differences of view

* Commission proposal - Summer 2000

* Many proposed amendments from MEPs

* Common Position - Nov 2001

slide41

Producer - a definition

“PRODUCER” means any person or organisation who, irrespective of the selling technique used, including by means of distance communication:

1. Manufactures and sells his own brand

2. Resells under his own brand

3. Imports or exports

slide42

What Equipment and Products are covered?

* All equipment dependent on electrical currents and magnetic fields

* Ten indicative categories:

1. Large household 7. Toys, leisure and sports

2. Small household 8. Medical devices

3. IT and telecomms 9. Monitoring equipment

4. Consumer equipment 10. Automatic dispensers

5. Lighting equipment

6. Electrical & Electronic tools

Very wide waste stream, domestic and business to business

slide43

Requirements of the WEEE Directive

* Separate collection of WEEE - 4kg per person per year

* Treatment according to standards

* Recovery and recycling - it sets %age targets

* Producer pays from collection onwards

* Retailers to offer free take-back

* Consumers to return WEEE free of charge

* B2B situation unclear and open to member state interpretation

slide44

Requirements for Treatment

* All fluids to be removed

* Member States to set up quality standards

* Treatment facilities to hold permits

* Specific storage requirements

* Specific dismantling requirements

slide45

Selective Treatment

* Batteries

* Printed circuit boards (10 square cms)

* Toner cartridges

* Cathode Ray Tubes

* Liquid Crystal Displays (100 square cms)

* Electrolyte capacitors

* Plastics : brominated flame retardants

slide46

Specific Treatment

* CRTs - fluorescent coat to be removed

* Ozone depleting substances

* Gas discharge lamps: mercury

None of this specific treatment should hinder the possibility of re-use

slide47

Recycling Rates by Product Category

* Large household: 80/75%

* IT & Consumer: 75/65%

* Others: 70/50%

* No target for medical equipment

slide48

How to Measure Recycling Rates

* Directive defines calculation

* Current cases at the ECJ will have an impact

* Audit trail or protocol

* Importance of end markets

* Linkage with ELV Directive

slide49

Key Dates

* Transposal - 18 months

* Producer Responsibility - 30 months

* Start separate collection - 30 months

* Collection target - 36 months

* Recovery Recycling targets - 46 months

slide50

European Parliament’s Role

* Co-decision procedure

* First Reading 15 May 2001

* A Second Reading is a certainty

* Council to submit Common Position text in November 01

slide51

Views of the European Parliament

* 270 amendments in committee

* Over 100 in Plenary

* More emphasis on Individual Producer Responsibility

* MEPs want consumers to be made to separate waste

* Want higher collection and recycling targets

* They also want the inclusion of consumables

slide52

3. RoHS Directive

* restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment

* Complementary to WEEE Directive

* WEEE Directive is Article 175

* RoHS is Article 95 (single market)

slide53

RoHS Directive - What does it cover?

* All the products covered by the WEEE Directive

* With the exception of

- medical equipment and

- monitoring and control equipment

* From 2007, the following are banned:

- lead

- mercury

- cadmium

- hexavalent chromium

- polybrominated biphenyls & polybrominated diphenyl ethers

slide54

Areas that still need resolution and clarification

* Collective or Individual Producer Responsibility

* Historic Waste - is this legal?

* Retroactive legislation - unfair burden on industry

* Orphaned products - who will pay?

* Producers pay for orphaned products? - penalise

successful companies with costs of unsuccessful ones

* Visible fees?

* In store retailer take-back required? - H&S issues, costs

* Treatment permits essential?