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The Yom Kippur War

The Yom Kippur War . October 1973. Background to the Yom Kippur War. War of Attrition Khartoum Summit : 3 No’s Premier Golda Meir’s policies UN resolution 242 : ‘occupied territories’ Sadat’s Foreign P olicy US role in the Middle East. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BumWLG_v1b4.

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The Yom Kippur War

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  1. The Yom Kippur War October 1973

  2. Background to the Yom Kippur War • War of Attrition • Khartoum Summit : 3 No’s • Premier Golda Meir’s policies • UN resolution 242 : ‘occupied territories’ • Sadat’s Foreign Policy • US role in the Middle East

  3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BumWLG_v1b4

  4. War of Attrition • 1968=1970 • Low level conflict with the aim to get back the Suez and Israel not willing to negotiate w/o guarantees of peace. • Undeclared war of attrition between both sides amidst tensions caused by Fatah and PFLP

  5. Conflict with PLO • Jordan who was increasingly frustrated by PLO and PFLP actions decided to evict PLO • 17th September, PLO supported by Syrian army • US and Israel intervened in Jordan’s support • Egypt stepped into make peace between Jordan and Arafat

  6. Black September • Fatah group re-group and name themselves Black September in memory of the pitched battles with Jordanian forces • Face –saving formula worked out with Arafat and King Hussein • Nasser dies on the 28th of September. • To the end, he created contradictions: privately wanted to work with Israel yet belligerent public policy!

  7. Anwar Sadat: Nasser’s successor • Former Speaker of the Parliament and then Vice-President of Egypt • Not taken seriously: “gray donkey” • He was alternately belligerent and conciliatory and sent confusing messages to the US • Wasn’t taken seriously as he was depending on USSR for arms but USA to have UN 242 implemented to regain Suez

  8. US role in the Middle East • As early as June 1967, President Johnson set out his 5 goals • The removal of threats against any nation in the region • Justice for the ‘refugees’ • Freedom of navigation • End to the Arms Race • Respect for politcal independence and territorial integrity of all states in the area.

  9. UN Resolution 242 • Came in the background of 3 NO’s of Khartoum Summit • Belligerence of Arab nations but Egypt and Jordan were willing to negotiate to a return to pre-war borders • Arab bargaining position was weak • Israelis not willing to negotiate: talk of Eretz Israel • 242 Introduced by GB, was watered down to its present form • Therefore 242 a compromise in every way

  10. Failure of Gunnar Jarring mission • A UN sponsored mission led by Swede Gunnar Jarring to negotiate return of territories. • Negotiated peace to be based on 242 • Lasted till 1971, achieved no tangible gains • UN had lost credibility over withdrawal of UNEF • Significance of 242: basis of all subsequent peace moves

  11. Palestinian Revival • Role of Fatah and PFLP • Munich, Dawson’s Field, Plane blown up in mid-air • Israel’s retaliation equally spectacular….Raid on Beirut International Airport • Bombings and hijackings did much to highlight the attention of the Palestinian cause but did not achieve its aims

  12. US role in the region • In the aftermath of 6 Day war, US –Israel ties closer • For both Cold War leaders, key to success in the wars would be air power and so both hastily tried to rebuild air force of their client states • US policy actively supported by the very powerful AIPAC lobby • AIPAC?

  13. AIPAC • Powerful lobby that would donate money for Presidential campaigns. • This group would make resources available to Presidential candidates based on their stance on Israel • By 1969, the AIPAC had supported the candidate opposing the new President Nixon • Nixon wanted to move away from Vietnam

  14. US: Role of Nixon • Wanted to deal with Middle East problem as Jarring mission was not working • Golda Meir refused to make compromises while Egypt and Syria were being re-armed • Golda Meir the last of the uncompromising group of Zionists who had played a pivotal role in the creation of Israel

  15. US: Roger’s Plan • Background: Jordan willing to negotiate for peace • Sec. of State William Rogers began to work on a peace deal based on 1967 pre-war borders • USSR convinced of this deal • Announced in Dec 1969 • Almost total withdrawal from all territories except Latrun Salient

  16. Roger’s Plan • Worrying to the Israelis • Reference to Palestinians rather than refugees • Jerusalem should be a divided city accessible to both Israel and Jordan • Israelis found it unacceptable and with AIPAC support began to ‘change the situation on the ground’

  17. Failure of Roger’s Plan • Never repudiated • US policy statement about how to interpret UN 242 • Kissinger, the US National Security advisor was concerned about such a divisive plan could work

  18. HW: PPT’s 6-8 minutes long. • Work in pairs to create power points( 4-5 slides) : • Joint Egypt Syria plans of attack. How was it done? How was it carried out? • Success or failure: the situation on the ground: Actual attack on Israel. What happened? • Role of other Arab states in the Yom Kippur War? • Role of the USSR and USA in the Yom Kippur War • Kissinger’s ‘step by step’ diplomacy • Overall results of the War

  19. PPTS • All power points to be uploaded to Wikispaces by Thursday night(11thNov.) so that Mrs Saha can edit and create for you lot a comprehensive PPT of the Yom Kippur War. • Monday 15th : Paper 1 style test • Suez War • 6 Day War • Palestinian Revival • Yom Kippur War

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