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في حرب أكتوبر. Yom Kippur War, 1973. מלחמת יום הכיפורים. Emerson, Clarissa, Cristiane. Introduction. Known as Yom Kippur War or October War President Sadat (Egypt) and Assad (Syria) versus Israel to gain territories lost in the 6 day War (1967) War promised major gains for Arabs:

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yom kippur war 1973

في حرب أكتوبر

Yom Kippur War, 1973

מלחמת יום הכיפורים

Emerson, Clarissa, Cristiane

  • Known as Yom Kippur War or October War
  • President Sadat (Egypt) and Assad (Syria) versus Israel to gain territories lost in the 6 day War (1967)
  • War promised major gains for Arabs:
    • Restoration of lost Arab pride
    • Popularity, legitimacy, longevity, and large contributions from the oil kingdoms (mainly Saudi Arabia)
    • Territory lost in 1967
countdown to war
Countdown to War
  • Sadat attempted to initiate peace agreements with Israel, which rejected
  • By May 1971 Sadat saw that war was the only option
  • Sadat requested weapons to USSR – began negotiating with US to pressure USSR, and expelled 15000 Soviet personnel
  • 1967-1970: Sadat and Assad preparing for war
  • Yom Kippur = important Israeli holiday (Oct 6)
  • Arab strategic surprise; complacent Israel army, thought Arabs to be weak and incapable
  • Arab leader only told his own army of the attack on the day it would happen
signs of war
Signs of War
  • Dayan understood that Arabs didn’t actually have to win the war, just not lose it too decisively
  • King Hussein (Jordan) remarked to Meir that Syria was in its “pre-jump off positions” for an offensive war”
morning of oct 6
Morning of Oct 6
  • Mobilization was small in Israel since they knew that American support would be crucial, thus Israel could not be seen as aggressor
  • Syria and Egypt prepared for war (Egypt had been practicing crossing Suez C. for months; launch attacks
the battle for the golan
The Battle for the Golan
  • Biggest tank battle since WWII
  • Oct 6: Syria launched surprise attack at Mt. Hermon against IDF’s electronic Int.
  • IDF used IAF jets as flying tank killers
  • IDF thought Syrian SAMs were ineffective, launched air strike to destroy them but failed
  • Towards end of battle: almost all Israeli tanks were w/out ammo and the men exhausted
  • Syrian troops were in better conditions than Israeli, but they didn’t know this; they retreated first
  • Oct 14: Israel conquered 20m2 in Bashan and were barely 20mi from Damascus
  • Oct 22: last battle, IDF recapture Mount Hermon
southern front
Southern Front
  • Bar-Lev line held by IDF along Suez Canal
  • Oct 6: air assault against IDF camps, radar installations, MI bases
  • Dayan: “Syrian army was breaking through the Golan [and IAF had to stop it] Sinai is sand. The Golan and Jordan Valley are home”
  • Oct 8: IDF counter attack on bridgeheads
  • Oct 9: Israel retreats
  • Oct 14: Egypt launches second stage of offensive, disperses geo- and chronologically = turning point in war
  • Oct 16: Israel counterattack
  • Oct 19: main battle: Israel presses northward across the canal’s West Bank toward Ismailia to cut off Egypt 2nd army
  • Oct 21: Resolution 338 (violated by both sides)
  • Oct 24: Israel sets to take Suez Canal, but fails
  • Resolutions follow
superpower involvement
Superpower Involvement
  • Superpowers played major role in battle from docut and course to politices in military supply and cease-fire
  • After 19 days of combat both sides needed supplies
    • USSR: biggest airlift in history in Oct 10
    • USA: greater air lift on Oct 13
  • Oct 22 – Egypt requests a dispatch of a joint Soviet-American force to assure ceasefire, Isreal refuses
  • USA stands in difficult position between Israel and the USSR
  • Oct 23: Soviet places seven divisions in Eastern Europe on standby
  • Oct 25: US counters USSR by putting nuclear forces on alter, demands Israel to cease all fire
resolution 338
Resolution 338
  • Adopted Oct 22, 1973
  • Was passed at the UNSC meeting by 14 votes to none
  • Ceasefire of Yom Kippur War
outcome of war
Outcome of War
  • Security Council resolutions 339 and 340 signed Oct 23-25 called for an immediate ceasfire
  • Casualties
    • Isreal: 2300 dead | 5500 wounded | 294 POW
    • Egypt: 12000 dead | 35000 wounded | 8400 POW
    • Syria: 3000 dead | 5600 wounded | 411 POW
  • Although IDF had gained a chunk of land in Syria, the Syrian army was able to push them back
  • Egypt achievements: armed froces broke psychological barrier, wiping out shame of defeats and conquered two strips of territory
  • Military victory of Israel, though