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Socialization

Socialization

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Socialization

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  1. Socialization

  2. Politics • The struggle to make decisions for the larger group • Public policy: gov’t plan of action to achieve outcomes • Free rider problem public goods • National resources for national problems (war, RxR, etc.) • Requires extraction of resources, organization, leadership, adjudication • Taxation, eminent domain, draft, theft; bureaucracy; coordination btwn diff levels/branches gov’t • Feedback loop between and among political actors: executive, legislative, bureaucracy, citizens, non-governmental organizations (NGOS), civil society, political parties, int’l organizations, etc. • Word Trade Organization (GATT), International Monetary Fund (IMF), UN, EU

  3. Political Parties: PAN, PRI, PRD parties State and Local Gov’ts Corporations and Bureaucracy

  4. Capacity + Autonomy • Capacity: ability state wield power to carry out policy, reconcile freedom + equality • Autonomy: ability state wield power independently of public • HC + HA: dictatorships/totalitarian (Iran, China, Russia) • HC + LA: advanced democracy (US, B, M) • LC + HA: ineffectual dictatorship (North Korea) • LC + LA: failing state (Nigeria)

  5. Identity • Ethnicity: attributes/history/institutions that make one group culturally diff. from others • Ascriptive (assigned at birth); not inherently political • National identity: an institution binds nation (vs. country/state) w/common poli’l aspirations, esp. self-government + sovereignty • Independence movements: nation w/in other country (e.g. Nigeria w/in British empire; South w/in United States; Chechnya w/in Russia (Putin’s power); Kurdistan w/in Iraq/Iran/Turkey) • Inherently political; often derived from ethnicity • Nationalism: pride in one’s people + belief have unique political destiny • Citizenship: individual relationship to state allegiance in return for benefits/rights; purely political: more easily changed • Patriotism: pride in one’s state (derived from citizenship)

  6. Cleavages • Reinforcing/coinciding: overlapping divisions, reinforce each other (e.g. Jim Crow South/ apartheid South Africa: race and class) agreement/compromise more difficult + social instability • Cross-cutting: cut across each other (e.g. race and gender) producing diff. divisions over diff. issues (groups divided internally) “bridges” for compromise + more social stability

  7. Ethnic Conflict • Struggle btwn ethnic groups for pol’l/econ ends at cost of others w/in nation/state • i.e. factions • National conflict: desire for sovereignty • Northern Ireland, Kurdistan, Chechnya • Top-down view: Generated by elites; can be stopped by leaders; outside force effective • Bottom-up: Generated by long-standing group friction; must “burn itself out”; outside force ineffective • Darfur? • Iraqi Sunni-Shi’ite-Kurds?

  8. Political Culture • Basic norms for political activity; determining factor what ideologies dominate; unique; distinct from pol’l attitudes/ideologies • i.e. basis for regime • Attitudes (means): radical/reactionary; reformers: liberal, conservative • Ideologies (ends): Liberalism (Euro), communism, social democracy, fascism, anarchism • Totalitarianism/fundamentalism