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Civil Rights Movement. A Divided Movement King vs. Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael, Black Panthers. Background of Racist Establishment. Review Emancipation Proclamation & Reconstruction

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civil rights movement

Civil Rights Movement

A Divided Movement

King vs. Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael, Black Panthers

background of racist establishment
Background of Racist Establishment
  • Review Emancipation Proclamation & Reconstruction
  • Jim Crow Laws: state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and in force between 1876 and 1964 that required racial segregation, especially of African-Americans, in all public facilities.
segregation
Segregation
  • The separation of an individual person from others on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, or sex.
  • De facto: serving a function without being legally or officially established. What took place in the North
  • De jure: according to law
what do these amendments mean
What do these amendments mean?
  • 14th Amend: “nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
  • 15th Amend: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
protection from amendments
Protection from Amendments?
  • Are the 14th and 15th amendments carried out in the South? Throughout U.S.? Why/Why not?
  • How will changes occur for African-Americans? In the South?
  • Is racism towards blacks only in the South?
methods of demonstration
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience

Sit-ins

Marches

Freedom Rides

Speeches

Legislation

Patience

Organized through churches

Action/Retaliation

Fight back

Militant

“Eye for an eye” mentality

Action Now!

Methods of Demonstration
leaders of civil rights movement
Non-Violent

Martin Luther King, Jr

Action - Retaliation

Malcolm X

Stokely Carmichael

Black Panthers

Leaders of Civil Rights Movement
martin luther king jr
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Baptist Minister
  • Emphasized peaceful, non-violent protests
  • Patience
  • Equal treatment for different races
  • Sought civil rights: vote, desegregation, labor rights
  • Founded Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • Objected to Black Power & violence – believed it would only bring more violence
  • Television projected events to the nation and the world
sit ins
Sit-ins
  • African Americans sat at “white only” lunch counters.
  • They were either arrested or refused service.
  • If they were arrested there were people waiting to take their spots.
freedom rides
Freedom Rides
  • 1961: bus loads of people waged a cross-country campaign to try to end the segregation of bus terminals.
  • The nonviolent protest brutally received at many stops along the way.
  • The buses that carried the Freedom Riders were bombed and burned.
  • Nat’l Guard rode on buses to protect the passengers
freedom summer 1964
Freedom Summer 1964
  • Invited white Northern college students to Mississippi
  • Voting rights campaign
  • Asked FBI to protect them, they were denied
  • 3 leaders, civil rights workers missing, found dead: Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney
  • Mississippi refused to investigate or indict anyone for the murders
1964 freedom summer
1964 – Freedom Summer
  • 1000’s of college students went to Mississippi to help with voter registration and participate in sit ins and marches.
march on washington 1963
March on Washington (1963)
  • Large political rally organized by MLK Jr. and others, for jobs and freedom
  • 250,000 people marched, 60,000 of them white
  • Kennedy Administration tried to prevent
  • Major factor leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • King delivered his famous “I Have A Dream” speech at the Lincoln Memorial
  • When was this planned earlier in history?
reactions to non violent protest
Reactions to Non-Violent Protest
  • 16th Street Bombing
  • Selma March
16 th street bombing
16th Street Bombing
  • On Sunday morning, September 15, 1963, the Ku Klux Klan bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four girls.
  • This murderous act shocked the nation and electrified the civil rights movement.
march 7 1965 march to selma
March 7, 1965 - March to Selma
  • On Sunday March 7, 1965, 525 people started a planned march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama
  • Goal to create confrontation to pass Voting Rights Act
  • When state troopers met the demonstrators at the edge of the city by the Edmund Pettus Bridge, that day became known as "Bloody Sunday”
march to selma1
March to Selma
  • The images sickened, outraged, and electrified people throughout the country.
  • Within 48 hours, demonstrations in support of the marchers were held in 80 cities.
  • Many of the nation's religious and lay leaders, including Martin Luther King, flew to Selma.
  • After one more failed attempt, King led a peaceful march from Selma to Montgomery.
  • LBJ ordered the National Guard to protect the marchers
  • Result: Congress responded to these events by enacting the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
action retaliation

Action - Retaliation

Malcolm X

Stokely Carmichael

Black Panthers

race riots
Race Riots
  • New York: 1964 sparked by death of 15-yr-old
  • Los Angeles (Watts): Worst race riot in predominately African-American area. Started 5 days after the Voting Rights Act passed
    • 34 killed, hundreds of millions $ damage
    • Racialized war on poverty, tied to inner cities
    • Shocked liberals who thought Southern problems had been solved
  • Yrs to come riots spread to over 100 cities
  • Needed economic equality in jobs, housing, & education
malcolm x
Malcolm X
  • Born Malcolm Little
  • Jailed for burglary/drug dealer
  • Turned to Nation of Islam – Muslim Minister & changed name to “X”
  • Militant leader, Malcolm X advocated black pride, economic self-reliance
  • Believed whites were the cause of black problems & called for separate society from whites
  • Organization grew amongst growth of Black Pride
malcolm x1
Malcolm X
  • Attract protesters who wanted to take action
  • “White Devils” & spoke of “eye for an eye”
  • Later broke w/ Nation of Islam & formed his own organization
  • Radical change:

many death threats

malcolm x s assassination
Malcolm X’s Assassination
  • Nation of Islam contract out for his death
  • Feb 14, 1965 house firebombed-escaped
  • Feb 21, 1965 killed by shotgun blast preparing to speak in Manhattan

Shot 16 times by 3 Nation of Islam assassins

malcolm x2
Malcolm X

"You can't separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom. "- Malcolm X

black power
Black Power
  • Political movement that arose in mid-60’s by Stokely Carmichael
  • Represented racial dignity & self-reliance
  • Use of slogan divided civil rights movement
  • King & others saw it as a violent approach
  • Focused on negative feelings: black separation, retaliatory violence, isolationism, etc.
  • Pride on own race & history
1968 olympics mexico city
1968 Olympics – Mexico City
  • Tommie Smith and John Carlos tried to convince African American athletes to boycott Olympics
  • Part of OPHR: Olympic Project for Human Rights
  • Won gold and bronze medals in the 200 m event.
  • Used Olympics as platform for protest
  • Accepted their medals in bare feet (to bring attention to the poverty of the African-American community)
  • Wore beads (in honor of the countless blacks murdered as victims of slavery or racism)
  • Held black-gloved fists in the air
1968 olympics stage for protest
1968 Olympics - Stage for Protest
  • Outrage against their actions
  • Thought to be disrespectful of National Anthem & Olympics
  • Forced to leave Olympics & expelled from team
  • Many whites angry & both men faced backlash when returned to U.S.
  • Demonstration of struggle for equality in U.S.

http://www.sportsposterwarehouse.com/warehouse/mexicocity68ii.htm

black panthers
Black Panthers
  • Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
  • Reputation as black nationalists
  • Practiced militant/armed self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government
  • Socialist based communittee programs
  • Sought for “real” equality along social & racial lines
  • Based on Malcolm X’s preachings
  • Fell apart in early 1970’s after Newton’s manslaughter conviction (1968)
black panthers1
Black Panthers

Original six Black Panthers (November, 1966) Top left to right: Elbert "Big Man" Howard; Huey P. Newton (Defense Minister), Sherman Forte, Bobby Seale (Chairman). Bottom: Reggie Forte and Little Bobby Hutton (Treasurer).

martin luther king jr assassination
Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination
  • Objected to Black Power & violence – believed it would only bring more violence
  • Spoke in Memphis, TN –sensed death was near
  • Protesting working conditions & wages
  • Assassinated April 4, 1968 on hotel balcony by James Earl Ray
  • Riots throughout the US followed
robert kennedy
Robert Kennedy
  • Campaigned for Pres. election
  • Civil Rights activist like his brother JFK
  • June 5, 1968 assassinated by Palestinian Arab, Sirhan Sirhan because of his support for Israel
civil rights act of 1968
Civil Rights Act of 1968
  • Ended discrimination in housing
  • Provided protection for civil rights workers