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Hazardous Materials Incidents

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  1. Hazardous Materials Incidents

  2. OpeningCase Hazardous Materials Incidents

  3. 35-Year-Old Lemar • Lemar was at work in a warehouse that distributes farming supplies. He was moving a shipment of Penncap-M when he left to go to the restroom. • Coworkers found Lemar in the bathroom with diarrhea. He is crying uncontrollably and blowing large amounts of mucous from his nose.

  4. SICK? Sick or Not-yet-sick? Why? or NOT YET SICK?

  5. What should you suspect? • Organophosphate poisoning • Propane exposure from the forklift • Carbon monoxide poisoning • Diesel exhaust particulates

  6. What should you suspect? • Organophosphate poisoning • Propane exposure from the forklift • Carbon monoxide poisoning • Diesel exhaust particulates

  7. Lemar • Lemar has a pulse of 50, BP 80/40, R 26 (he is audibly wheezing) • ECG: sinus bradycardia

  8. What medication will be most helpful to Lemar first? • Compazine • Atropine • Albuterol • Epinephrine

  9. What medication will be most helpful to Lemar first? • Compazine • Atropine • Albuterol • Epinephrine

  10. Introduction

  11. Introduction • Hazardous materials (hazmat) • Every scene is a potential hazmat scene • Orderly scene assessment is imperative

  12. Hazardous Materials Zones

  13. Hazardous Materials Zones HOT ZONE—Area of contamination WARM ZONE—Contamination reduction COLD ZONE—Support zone

  14. What Are Hazardous Materials?

  15. What Are Hazardous Materials? • A hazardous material is any solid, liquid, or gas that, when released, is capable of harming people, the environment, or property

  16. What Are Hazardous Materials? • Who regulates hazardous materials? • EPA • DOT • OHSA and NIOSH • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

  17. Incidence

  18. Incidence • Occur anywhere hazardous materials are manufactured, processed, used, transported, or stored • Examples: • Fixed facilities and storage, transportation, waste sites, medical facilities/hospitals, households

  19. Transportation

  20. Regulations and Standards

  21. Regulations and Standards • HAZWOPER • Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response: regulates EMS response • NIMS • HAZWOPER requires use of the National Incident Management System (NIMS)

  22. Certification Levels

  23. Certification Levels • First responder awareness level • First responder operations level • Hazardous materials technicians • Hazardous materials specialists • Incident commanders

  24. First Responder Awareness Level • Initiate an emergency response by notifying the proper authorities • Take no additional action • Not trained to enter the warm or hot zones • Able to • Understand what hazardous materials are and the associated risks and understand the potential outcomes of hazmat emergencies • Recognize and identify hazardous materials • Understand and use the North American Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)

  25. First Responder Operations Level • Initial response • Defensive position without attempting to stop the release • Contain the release from a safe distance • Able to • Know basic hazard and risk-assessment techniques • Select and use proper personal protective equipment (PPE) • Understand basic hazmat terminology • Perform basic control, containment, and/or confinement operations • Implement basic decontamination procedures

  26. Hazardous Materials Technicians • Assume an aggressive role and approach the point of release in order to plug, patch, or stop the release of a hazmat • Able to • Perform at the first responder operations level • Implement the company or agency emergency response plan • Select and use proper advanced PPE • Understand hazard and risk-assessment techniques • Perform advanced control, containment, and/or confinement operations • Implement decontamination procedures • Understand basic chemical and toxicological terminology and behavior

  27. Hazardous Materials Specialists • Provide support to hazardous materials technicians • The hazardous materials specialist acts as the site liaison with federal, state, local, and other government authorities • Able to • Perform at the hazardous materials technician level • Know details of the state emergency response plan • Understand detailed hazard and risk-assessment techniques • Perform specialized control, containment, and/or confinement operations • Determine and implement decontamination procedures • Develop a site safety and control plan • Understand chemical, toxicological, and radiological terminology and behavior and act as liaison between various teams and responders

  28. Incident Commanders • ICsassume control of the incident scene • Able to • Perform at the first responder operations level • Implement NIMS’ incident command system • Oversee the development of the written incident action plan (IAP) as required by the NIMS standards • Implement the company emergency response plan • Understand the hazards and risks associated with working in chemical PPE • Implement the local emergency response plan • Understand the state and federal emergency response capabilities • Understand the importance of decontamination procedures

  29. Certification Levels • Three levels of hazardous materials training specific to EMS • Awareness and Recognition • EMS Level I Responders • EMS Level II Responders

  30. Awareness and Recognition • May be first on scene • Recognize the presence of a hazardous material • Know how to protect their own safety • Call for technical support • Secure the area

  31. EMS Level 1 Responders • Work only in cold zone • Health care professionals • Have EMT-B training or higher • Have hazmat awareness level training • Know specialized topics such as hazardous materials toxicology

  32. EMS Level 2 Responders • Perform decontamination in the warm zone • Provide care for victims who still pose a significant risk of secondary contamination • Perform at the EMS/hazmat Level I • Analyze and determine the magnitude of the problem • Plan an EMS response • Provide medical support to hazardous materials response personnel

  33. Initial Response

  34. Planning (“Preplan”) • Awareness of factors such as • Time of day • Route • Vehicle position • Wind speed • Topography • Scene lighting • Other hazards

  35. Recognition • Early recognition • Accurate identification

  36. Senses: Sights, Sounds, Smells • Clues to possible hazmat situations can come from • The dispatcher • Visual, auditory, or olfactory senses

  37. Sample EMS Decision Tree

  38. Incident Organization • Incident commander (IC) responsibilities • National Incident Management System (NIMS) • Unified command • Incident action plan (IAP)

  39. Hazardous Materials Work Zones Establish three zones: HOT ZONE—Area of contamination WARM ZONE—Contamination reduction COLD ZONE—Support zone

  40. Work Zones

  41. Identification of Hazards

  42. Material Safety Data Sheets and Shipping Papers • Three resources available for chemical information: • Material safety data sheets (MSDS) • Shipping papers • The driver

  43. Colors and Placards • Use binoculars to look for placards • Each area represents a specific hazard: • Blue indicates health hazard • Red indicates flammability • Yellow indicates reactivity • White advises special information 1 3 1 W

  44. Department of Transportation (DOT) Hazardous Materials Classifications • DOT Emergency Response Guide (ERG) • DOT placards

  45. Which color indicates a health hazard according to the fire diamond (NFPA 704) placard system? • Blue • Yellow • Red • White

  46. Which color indicates a health hazard according to the fire diamond (NFPA 704) placard system? • Blue • Yellow • Red • White

  47. NFPA Fire Diamonds

  48. You are called to the university chemistry lab for a burn. Upon entering the building, you notice the placard below. What is the most important consideration when entering this building? • High risk of fire • High risk of reactivity • High risk of radioactivity • High health risk 1 3 1 W

  49. You are called to the university chemistry lab for a burn. Upon entering the building you notice the placard below. What is the most important consideration when entering this building? • High risk of fire • High risk of reactivity • High risk of radioactivity • High health risk 1 3 1 W

  50. Department of Transportation (DOT) Hazardous Materials Classifications • There are nine DOT hazard classes: • Class 1—Explosives • Class 2—Gasses • Class 3—Flammable liquids • Class 4—Flammable solids • Class 5—Oxidizers and organic peroxides • Class 6—Toxic materials and infectious substances • Class 7—Radioactive materials • Class 8—Corrosive materials • Class 9—Miscellaneous dangerous goods