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Chapter 1 Getting Started. What is Statistics?. Individuals vs. Variables. Individuals . Variables. Characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed. People or objects included in the study . Quantitative vs. Qualitative. Quantitative Variables. Qualitative Variables.

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chapter 1 getting started

Chapter 1 Getting Started

What is Statistics?

individuals vs variables
Individuals vs. Variables

Individuals

Variables

Characteristic of the individual to be measured or observed

  • People or objects included in the study
quantitative vs qualitative
Quantitative vs. Qualitative

Quantitative Variables

Qualitative Variables

Describes an individual by placing the individual into a category or group, such as male or female

  • Have value or numerical measurement for which operations such as addition or averaging make sense
population vs sample
Population vs. Sample

Population Data

Sample Data

The data are from only some of the individuals of interest

Sample Statistics are numerical measures that describe an aspect of a sample

  • Data is from every individual of interest
  • Population Parameters are numerical measures that describe an aspect of a population
levels of measurement
Levels of Measurement
  • Nominal – Names, Labels, Categories
  • Ordinal – Arranged in meaningful mathematical order
  • Interval – Differences are meaningful
  • Ratio – Division or percentage comparisons make sense; zero point
chapter 1 getting started1

Chapter 1 Getting Started

1.2 Random Samples

simple random sample srs
Simple Random Sample (SRS)
  • A simple random sample of no measurements from a population is a subset of the population selected in such a manner that every sample of size n from the population has an equal chance of being selected.
random number tables rnt
Random Number Tables (RNT)
  • Used to help secure a SRS
  • Steps:
    • Number all members of the population sequentially.
    • Drop a pin on the RNT to pick a starting point
    • Pull digits n at a time, discarding non-used numbers
    • Repetition?
other methods to secure a srs
Other Methods to Secure a SRS
  • Systematic
  • Stratified
  • Cluster
  • Multistage
  • Convenience
systematic sampling
Systematic Sampling
  • Population is numbered
  • Select a starting point at random and pick every kth member
stratified sampling
Stratified Sampling
  • Divide population into distinct subgroups based on specific characteristics
  • Draw random samples from each strata
cluster sampling
Cluster Sampling
  • Divide population into pre-existing segments or clusters (often geographic).
  • Make a random selection of clusters.
  • All members of cluster are chosen.
multistage sampling
Multistage Sampling
  • Use a variety of sampling methods to create successively smaller groups at each stage.
  • Final sample is made of clusters.
convenience sampling
Convenience Sampling
  • Create sample by selecting population members which are easily available