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HPHE 1500Dr. Ayers Chapter 7: Basics Concepts of Fitness
Introductory points • Landmark documents: Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity & Health (1996) Highlighted the role of physical activity (PA) in maintaining good health Shape of the Nation 2010 Current status of Physical Education in the American educational system • Healthy People 2020 • Goals and objectives with 10-yr targets to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health of all people in the US
Rapid rise overweight and obesity in children, youth, and adults(see Box 7.1) • Obesity is now the 2nd leading cause of death in the US • Estimated annual economic burden of sedentary lifestyles in the US: $1.2t • Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy & Fit Nation(2010): • “High-quality physical education gives young people a chance to learn the skills needed to establish and maintain physically active lifestyles” • “In 2006, few schools provided daily physical education or its equivalent for the entire school year to all students.”
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness • “Fitness” is the umbrella term for several related concepts (see Box 7.2, p.162) Wellness Physical Activity Hypokinetic Diseases Aerobic Exercise CV Endurance Anaerobic Leisure Activity Body Composition Healthy Lifestyle Health Can you define, explain their differences?
Types of Fitness • Health-related fitness • Cardiovascular endurance • Flexibility • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Body composition THE GAINS ARE FLEETING Skill-related fitness • Agility • Balance • Coordination • Power • Reaction time • Speed • Cosmetic fitness • Looking good/“fit” is in • Possible negatives: eating disorders, “the cult of slenderness” (Tinning, 1985)
The Dose-Response Debate • Exercise epidemiology’s central question: How much, for how long, and at what intensity (dose) does one need to exercise to obtain health benefits (response)? • Inverse and linear relationship • Moving from sedentary to 30 mins. of moderate PA (accumulated) provides the greatest gains in reducing the risk of dying prematurely from chronic diseases • Different guidelines for children/adolescents than adults
PA Guidelines for children/adolescents: • 60+ mins/day PA • MVPA aerobic 3d/wk • Muscle strengthening 3d/wk • Bone strengthening 3d/wk • Age-appropriate, enjoyable, variety, intermittent • PA Guidelines for adults: • 150 mins/wk moderate OR 75 mins/wk vigorous aerobic • Muscle strengthening 2d/wk USDHHS, 2008
Fitness is improved when the amount of PA increases relative to a combination of GRADUAL changes in: • Frequency (how often) • Intensity (how hard) • Time (how long) • Type (what kind)
The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness • How does SES affect health and quality of life? • Health is now seen as a social commodity . . . • How equitable is access to: Safe activity spaces, nutritious food, health care, health information, etc.? • While individual responsibility is essential, how do we ensure that as a society ALL have access/opportunity to a physically active lifestyle?
Training Principles • Overload • Progression • Individuality • Recovery • Specificity • Regularity
Strength Training MISINFORMATION ALERT: • Common error/assumption corrections: • Body weight and alternative resistance methods • 1RM inappropriate until after 17 yrs • Avoid overhead lifts • Spotting (correctly!) ESSENTIAL • Supervision and form emphasized for safety • Free weights athletes only or later in HS
Major muscle groups typically targeted: • Pectoralis • LatissimusDorsi • Deltoids • Triceps • Biceps • Quadriceps • Hamstrings • Forearms • Calves (gastrocnemius, soleus)
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity • What makes fitness program effective ... …for a soccer player? …for a golfer? …for you? It depends on the goal . . . Performance? Looks? Health?
Measuring Health-related Fitness • Direct measures of CV fitness & body composition • Fitness tests • Body composition • Back/hamstring flexibility • Abdominal strength • Upper body strength • Cardiovascular capacity
Fitness Tests • Fitnessgram® • Presidential Physical Fitness Test Reporting of results: • Criterion-referenced (comparison to a health standard ) • Norm-referenced (comparison to like population)
MVPA • Possible assessment tools: • HR Monitor • Accelerometer • Pedometers • Activitygram • Metabolic equivalent (MET) • Each has its advantages and disadvantages
Informal Measurement of Fitness • More valued by typical adult • Examples: • Simple HR check (checking threshold & recovery) • Tracking time and distance for the same exercise
Find a Friend Share two things you learned today. • Due Wed: • Go online to one of these reports and: • List two things that strike you as important as a young professional • Briefly explain WHY each tidbit is important (2-3 sents) • Shape of the Nation 2010 • Healthy People 2020 • Surgeon General’s Vision for a Healthy & Fit Nation