The Truth About Valentines Day Brought to you by Bro. B West Hotep-My-Brother Productions email@example.com
Objectives • To discuss the following topics • The Lupercalia • The story of Romulus & Remus • Lupercus (Roman god of fertility, agriculture, and shepherds) • Month of February • Lovers Lottery • St. Valentine • The Bishop of Interamna • Valentine the priest • Valentine the martyr
Objectives • Council of Nicaea • Announces Christianity • Incorporates pagans religious concepts into the Christian scheme • The Valentine Card • The history of the valentine card • Valentine’s Day Flowers • History and origin • The red rose • Cupid and Psyche • The tale of cupid and psyche
Introduction • When the calendar turns to February, we start to think of love. February has for centuries been designated the month for lovers, with the primary celebration being on February 14, St. Valentines Day. We send cards, flowers, and candy and our children give out Valentines in school. Valentines Day reminds us to tell our loved ones just how much we care about them.
Introduction • But have you ever stopped to think about the history of the holiday? Do you know why February 14 is called St. Valentines day and how the tradition of sending cards to each other developed? How did that day ever become associated with love? • Valentines Day was originally created as a substitute. In the fifth century A.D., the Catholic Church attempted to be rid of a common pagan fertility rite that the Romans had been taking part in since the fourth century B.C.
The Lupercalia • The Story of Romulus & Remus • According to the Roman legend, Romulus was the founder of Rome and Remus was his twin brother. Their story begins with their grandfather Numitor, king of the ancient Italian city of Alba Longa, was deposed by his brother Amulius. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia, Numitor's daughter, to become a Vestal Virgin, a devotee of Vesta, so that she would never bear any sons that might overthrow him.
The Lupercalia • In ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins were the virgin holy female priests of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. The Vestal Virgins were committed to the priesthood and were sworn to celibacy for a period of 30 years. These 30 years were, in turn, divided into three periods of a decade each: ten as students, ten in service, and ten as teachers. Afterwards, they could marry if they chose to do so.
The Lupercalia • Mars, the god of war, fell in love with her, Rhea Silvia, and she gave birth to twin sons, Romulus & Remus. • Amulius, fearing that the boys would grow up to overthrow him, had them placed in a trough and thrown into the River Tiber. At that time the river was in flood, and when the waters subsided, the trough, still containing the two boys, came ashore.
The Lupercalia • They were found by a she-wolf who, instead of killing them, looked after them and fed them with her milk. A woodpecker also brought them food, for the woodpecker, like the wolf, was sacred to Mars.
The Lupercalia • Later the twins where found by Faustulus, the king's shepherd. He took them home to his wife and the two adopted them, calling them Romulus and Remus. They grew up as bold and strong young men, leading a warlike band of shepherds. • One day Remus was captured and brought before Numitor for punishment. Numitor noticing how unlike a shepherd's son he was, questioned him and before long realized who he was. Romulus and Remus than rose against Amulius, killed him and restored the kingdom to their grandfather.
The Lupercalia • Deciding to found a town of their own, Romulus and Remus chose the sacred place where the she-wolf had nursed them. The name of this town would be called Rome.
The Lupercalia Lupercus Roman Gods Apollo - god of the sun. Bacchus - god of wine. Ceres - goddess of farming and the Earth. Cupid - god of love. Diana - goddess of the moon. Fortuna - goddess of luck. Janus - god of doors. Juno - queen of the gods. Jupiter - king of the gods. Lupercus – god of shepherds Mars - god of war. Pluto - god of hell (the underworld). Venus - goddess of love and beauty. Vulcan - the god of fire. • In Roman mythology, Lupercus is the god of fertility, agriculture, and shepherds. Lupercus was associated with the cave where Romulus and Remus were suckled by a she-wolf. He was associated with goats and dogs.
The Month Of February • February occurred later on the ancient Roman calendar than it does today so Lupercalia was held in the spring and regarded as a festival of purification and fertility. Each year on February 15, the Luperci priests gathered on Palantine Hill at the cave of Lupercal. Vestal virgins brought sacred cakes made from the first ears of last year's grain harvest to the fig tree. Two naked young men, assisted by the Vestals, sacrificed a dog and a goat at the site. The blood was smeared on the foreheads of the young men and then wiped away with wool dipped in milk.
The Month Of February • January: Janus, Roman god of doors, beginnings, sunset and sunrise, had one face looking forward and one backward, • February:On February 15 the Romans celebrated the festival of forgiveness for sins; (februare, Latin to purify) • March: Mars, the Roman god of war, • April: Roman month Aprilis, perhaps derived from aperire, (Latin to open, as in opening buds and blossoms) or perhaps from Aphrodite, original Greek name of Venus • May: Maia, Roman goddess, mother of Mercury by Jupiter and daughter of Atlas • June: Juno, chief Roman goddess • July: Renamed for Julius Caesar in 44 BC, who was born this month; Quintilis, Latin for fifth month, was the former name (the Roman year began in March rather than January) • August: Formerly Sextilis (sixth month in the Roman calendar); re-named in 8 BC for Augustus Caesar • September: September, (septem, Latin for 7) the seventh month in the Julian or Roman calendar, established in the reign of Julius Caesar • October: Eighth month (octo, Latin for 8) in the Julian (Roman) calendar. The Gregorian calendar instituted by Pope Gregory XIII established January as the first month of the year • November: Ninth Roman month (novem, Latin for 9). Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1582, skipping 10 days that October, correcting for too many leap years • December: Julian (Roman) year's tenth month (decem, Latin for 10)
The Month Of February • February -- month of Februa • Middle English FebruariusLatin Februarius "of Februa"Latin Februa(s) "Februa" + -arius "ary (pertaining to)"Latin Februariusmensis "month of Februa"Latin dies februatus "day of purification" Februarius • Februa is the Roman festival of purification, held on February fifteenth.
The Month Of February • The early Roman calendar had only ten months, with Decembris (Latin decem=10) the last month of the year and March the first. The month of July, the fifth month, was number-named Quintilis (Latin quin-=5) until it was renamed for Julius Caesar. February was not part of the original calendar, but was added (with a variable number of days), as the month preceding the beginning of the year. Sometimes there was an additional intercalary month.
The Month Of February • February was a month for purification, as the Lupercalia festival suggests. Originally, February may have had 23 days. In time the calendar was standardized so that all 12 months had 29 or 31 days in each month, except for February which had 28. Later Julius Caessar re-standardized the calendar to line up with the seasons.
Lovers Lottery • Long after PalentineHIll became the seat of the powerful city, state and empire of Rome, the Lupercalia festival lived on. Roman armies took the Lupercalia customs with them as they invaded France and Britain. • One of these was a lovers lottery.
Lovers Lottery • Every year the Romans celebrated a young man’s rite of passage to the god Lupercus by holding a lottery in mid-February. The names of willing teenage girls were placed in a box and drawn at random by teenage men. By this lottery a young man was assigned a young woman companion for their mutual pleasure (often sexual) for the duration of a year.
Lovers Lottery • After the year was up another lottery was held. As Christianity spread and the leaders of the Church resolved to do away with this practice by picking a “lover’s” saint to replace the god Lupercus. • Then, for the next twelve months, participants were to emulate the ideals represented by the particular saint they'd chosen. Not too surprisingly, this prudish version of Lupercalia proved unpopular, and died a quick death
Lovers Lottery • Despite the efforts of the Church, Valentine's Day continued to echo Lupercalia in at least one respect - men and women, married or single, would draw lots to select a "valentine." Once paired, the couple exchanged gifts and sometimes love tokens as well. • The custom of lottery drawings to select Valentines persisted well into the eighteenth century. Gradually, however, a shift took place. No longer did both parties exchange gifts; instead, gift-giving became solely the responsibility of the man!
Lovers Lottery • This new twist helped to finally bring an end to the random drawing of names, since many men were unhappy about giving gifts (sometimes very costly) to women who were not of their choosing. And now that individuals were free to select their own Valentine, the celebration took on a new and much more serious meaning for couples!
Saint Valentine • Confusion surrounds St Valentine's exact identity. At least three Saint Valentines are mentioned in the early martyrologies under the date of February 14th. One is described as a priest in Rome, another as a Bishop of Interamna, now Terni in Italy, and the other lived and died in Africa.
Saint Valentine • The Bishop of Interamna is most widely accepted as the basis of the modern saint. He was an early Christian martyr who lived in northern Italy in the third century and was put to death on February 14th around 270 AD by the orders of Emperor Claudius II for disobeying the ban on Christianity.
Saint Valentine • Claudius' Rome was an extremely dangerous place to be Christian. Valentine not only chose to be a priest, but was believed to have been a leader of the Christian underground movement. • Many priests were caught, one by one and imprisoned and martyred. Valentine supposedly continued to preach the word after he was imprisoned, witnessing to the prisoners and guards.
Saint Valentine • One story tells that he was able to cure a guard’s daughter of blindness. When word got back to Claudius, he was furious and ordered Valentine’s brutal execution – beaten by clubs until dead, and then beheaded. • While he was waiting for the soldiers to come and drag him away, Valentine composed a note to the girl telling her that he loved her. He signed it simply, "From Your Valentine." The execution was carried out on February 14th.
Saint Valentine • Another legend touts of a well loved priest called Valentine living under the rule of Emperor Claudius II. Rome was constantly engaged in war. Year after year, Claudius drafted male citizens into battle to defend and expand the Roman Empire. • Many Romans were unwilling to go. Married men did not want to leave their families. Younger men did not wish to leave their sweethearts.
Saint Valentine • Claudius ordered a moratorium on all marriages and that all engagements must be broken off immediately. • Valentine disagreed with his emperor. When a young couple came to the temple seeking to be married, Valentine secretly obliged them. Others came and were quietly married. Valentine became the friend of lovers in every district of Rome
Saint Valentine • But such secrets could not be kept for long. Valentine was dragged from the temple. Many pleaded with Claudius for Valentine's release but to no avail, and in a dungeon, Valentine languished and died. His devoted friends are said to have buried him in the church of St. Praxedes on the 14th of February.
COUNCIL OF NICAEA - 325 AD • The year was 325 A.D. according to the Roman calendar. A council was convened by order of Constantine, the Roman emperor. He had been a leader in the cult known as Sol Invictus (Invincible Sun) and now wanted to unite the Christian sects in the empire under his existing church; the Universal Church of Rome. Many changes to the religion of Christianity were about to take place at that council, including: • Formulation for wording concerning the Trinity based on Anthanias • Changing Verses of Bible • Eliminating certain verses and books from the Bible • Declaring Arian's "unitarian" (belief in the Unity of God) as heresy • Changing the day of worship from Saturday to Sunday • Changing the date of Jesus' birthday to December 25th • Introduction of Easter (pagan worship called "Feast of Ishtar") • Church of Roman "officially" became the "Universal Church of the Holy Roman Empire" (the word 'Catholic' means 'universal')
COUNCIL OF NICAEA - 325 AD • The long-term effects of the Council of Nicaea were significant. The sources are clear that the Emperor Constantine called the council in order to bring an end to dissension within the church. In particular, he was concerned about two specific issues which were causing disagreement: Arianism and the date of Easter. Other matters were settled at the council, but these were the two that prompted the calling of the council.
COUNCIL OF NICAEA - 325 AD • Among these other matters was the combination of pagan holidays and beliefs in the new religion of Christianity. i.e. Christmas, St. Valentines day, Easter.
The Valentine's Day Card • Arguably, you could say the very first valentine cards were the slips of paper bearing names of maidens the early Romans first drew. Or perhaps the note Valentine passed from his death cell. The first modern valentine cards are attributed to the young French Duke of Orleans. • He was captured in battle and held prisoner in the Tower of London for many years. He was most prolific during his stay and wrote countless love poems to his wife.
The Valentine's Day Card • By the 17th century, handmade cards had become quite elaborate. Pre-fabricated ones were only for those with means. Printers began producing a limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called “mechanical valentines,” and a reduction in postal rates in the next century ushered in the practice of mailing valentines. • This made it possible to exchange cards anonymously and suddenly, racy, sexually suggestive verses started appearing in great numbers, causing quite a stir among prudish Victorians. The number of obscene valentines caused several countries to ban the practice of exchanging cards.
The Valentine's Day Card • The first American publisher of valentines was printer and artist Esther Howland. Her elaborate lace cards of the 1870’s cost from five to ten dollars, some as much as thirty-five dollars. Since then, the valentine card business has flourished. With the exception of Christmas, Americans exchange more cards on Valentine’s Day than at any other time of year.
The Valentine's Day Flower • The rose is the queen of flowers and is the traditional Valentine’s Day flower and has been the choice of lovers for several years to convey their truest emotions of love and passion. • According to popular legends red rose is considered to be a favorite flower of Venus - the Roman mythological Goddess of Love and Beauty. Hence the red Rose came to be associated with love and romance.
The Valentine's Day Flower • Red Roses - Love and passion White Roses - True love, purity of the mind and reverenceYellow Roses - Friendship, celebration and joy Pink Roses - Friendship or Sweetheart, admirationPeach Roses - Desire and excitement or appreciation Lilac Roses - Love at first sight and enchantment • Coral Roses - DesireOrange Roses - Enthusiasm and desireBlack Roses - Farewell or It's OverBouquet of Red and Yellow Roses: Happiness and celebrations Bouquet of Red and White Roses: Bonding and harmony Bouquet of Yellow and Orange Roses: Passion
The Valentine's Day Flower • Giving flowers on St. Valentine's Day first became popular in the 17th century. Roses, having the distinction of representing love in all its forms, are the blossoms of choice on Valentine's Day.
Cupid • He was the Roman god of love, the son of Venus. He was portrayed as a winged, blindfolded boy, armed with a bow and arrows which caused the victim to fall in love. His Greek equivalent was Eros.
Cupid • In an unidentified kingdom, the worship of Venus (Aphrodite) was fading away, because the populace thought that the king's youngest daughter, Psyche, was more beautiful than the goddess of love and beauty. The populace began to worship the princess as the goddess. • Though, Psyche didn't ask for this attention, the goddess was jealous over the girl usurping her position. She called upon her son, Cupid (Eros), the god of love, to make sure no one would marry the young princess, and that she would fall in love with a monster. • However, he had instantly fallen in love with Psyche, the moment Cupid saw the mortal princess. Cupid wanted to marry the mortal girl, so he made arrangement that she would have him
Cupid • The king, Psyche's father, became concerned that many come to worship her daughter, but no suitors would dare ask for the hand in marriage. Her father went to an oracle in Miletus, but heard that his daughter must be left in the mountain, where an evil being (demon or monster) would take his daughter as his wife. • That first night, her came husband came to her, but she could see him in the darkness. At first, she felt fear, but his presence reassured her. Her husband (Cupid) told her that this home was hers, and that he loved her. However, he warned her that she must look upon him in the light.
Cupid • After the night of pleasure, her husband left in the morning, but each night, he would visit her again, each time in bed under the cover of darkness. Psyche never seen her invisible husband, nor knew his name. • Psyche had fallen pregnant. Cupid informed her that if she does look upon him before their child is born, then the baby would be mortal. The child would only be immortal if she doesn't see his face until after birth.
Cupid • Psyche finally having misgiving about her marriage decided to act upon her sisters' advice. While her husband slept in their bed that night, Psyche fetched an oil lamp and a knife; she was determined to see what monstrous husband she had married and slay him in his sleep. • Trembling she held oil lamp in one hand and a knife ready to plunge into her husband's heart, as she approached the bed. But what she saw in the light, was not a horrifying creature from the depth of hell, but a beautiful young man with golden wings. At the sight of her husband, she forgot that she was holding the oil lamp in her hand, and spilled a drop of hot oil on to his shoulder. • Her husband woke in pain, and saw that his wife had betrayed him. The love god left Psyche. Cupid returned to his mother in Olympus. Psyche was distraught that she had lost her husband, who was none other than Cupid the god of love.
Scripture On Love • 1 Corinthians 13:4-13 • Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. . .And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love. What this scripture means is that love is an action word and its not conditional. It is not based on what you get for someone or what you give them, or what they get or give to you. Once love is there it is always there until the end of time and if it isn’t then it wasn't really love. Love isn’t a feel it’s a state of being.
Scripture On Love John 3:16 (King James Version) For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. God love the world so much that he gave us his best, his only begotten son. When you love someone you must be willing to give them your very best and nothing less will do. If God, according to the Bible, was willing to do this out of love then we must exhibit this same love to one another.
Scripture On Love • Mark 12:28-31 (New International Version) • 28One of the teachers of the law came and heard them debating. Noticing that Jesus had given them a good answer, he asked him, "Of all the commandments, which is the most important?" 29"The most important one," answered Jesus, "is this: 'Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. 30Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. 31The second is this: Love your neighbor as yourself. There is no commandment greater than these. You must know and remember that your love come from Your god and you must present this love back to him/her with everything that you have. This passage is that we love one another as we love ourselves.
Scripture On Love • Surah 3:92 (Holy Qur’an) • By no means shall ye attain righteousness unless ye give (freely) of that which ye love; and whatever ye give, of a truth Allah knoweth it well. Here again is reference to loving wealth and things, but that righteousness is attained by giving or spending [nafuq] for what one loves. Thus, these verses come closest to the Biblical injunction "Do not love the world, nor the things in the world." I John 2:15 This of the world would be the pagan celebrations of love.
Conclusion • The Lupercalia • The celebration of valentines day is based on a mythological story that is pagan. The very roots of this celebration is sick, twisted and perverted in nature. • Europeans did not, and still don’t, know how to express love to one another to they have to encompass a sexually perverted aggressive aspect in order to tell their mates how they feel.
Conclusion • Lovers Lottery • All the Europeans know/knew was sexual aggression. They have no concept of a lifelong relationship. • Sex is a physical bond by which to enter into a spiritual connection between an man and his wife. This is what the creator meant for sex to be. When a man and wife engage into a sexual connection their spirits become one and it is during this connection that the creator touches their union and blesses them spiritually.
Conclusion • The European people has twisted sex into physical connection for self gratification that has lead the world sexual perversion. • It is the European that has brought about homosexuality, pornography, sodemy, child molestation, and rape. • The Europeans are responsible for taking the concept of love, which is an action , and turned it into a feeling that can be turned on and off.