Appreciating Individual Differences: Intelligence, Ability, Personality, Core Self-Evaluations, Attitudes, and Emotions Chapter Five
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO5.1Identify at least five of Gardner’s eight multiple intelligences, and explain “practical intelligence” LO5.2Identify and describe the Big Five personality dimensions, specify which one is correlated most strongly with job performance, and describe the proactive personality. LO5.3 Explain the four components of Core Self- Evaluations.
After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: LO5.4 Distinguish between self-esteem and self- efficacy. LO5.5 Explain the difference between an internal and external locus of control. LO5.6 Identify the three components of attitudes and discuss cognitive dissonance LO5.7 Explain the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional contagion and emotional labor
Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities • Intelligence • capacity for constructive thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
Two Types of Abilities • General mental ability needed for all cognitive tasks • Unique to the task at hand
Question? Jimmy can remember the order preferences of each of his clients. This the mental ability of ________. • Word fluency • Numerical • Spatial • Memory
Personality Dynamics • Personality • the combination of stable physical and mental characteristics that give the individual his or her identity
Question? If Clint is dependable, responsible, achievement-oriented, and persistent, he is demonstrating which of these Big Five personality dimensions? • Extraversion • Emotional stability • Locus of control • Conscientiousness
Proactive Personality • Proactive Personality- • someone who is relatively unconstrained by situational forces and who effects environmental change
Personality and Job Performance • Conscientiousness has the strongest positive correlation with job and training performance • Extraversion is associated with success for managers and salespeople
Core Self-Evaluations • Core self-evaluations represent a broad personality trait comprised of four narrower individual personality traits: • (1) self-esteem, (2) generalized self-efficacy, (3) locus of control, and (4) emotional stability
Self-Esteem • Self-esteem • Belief about one’s own self worth based on an overall self-evaluation.
Can General Self-Esteem Be Improved? • Low self-esteem can be raised more by having a person think of desirable characteristics possessed rather of undesirable characteristics from which he is free
Question? Bianca, a manager for Oil Traders, Inc., has been offered a promotion. Her preference is to work in a culture where the correlation between self-esteem and life satisfaction is not strong. Based on what research tells us, which of these countries should Bianca choose? • Canada • Netherlands • Japan • New Zealand
Self-Efficacy • Self-efficacy • a person’s belief about his chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task • Learned Helplessness • severely debilitating belief that one has no control over one’s environment.
Managerial Implications • On-the-job research evidence encourages managers to nurture self-efficacy, both in themselves and in others • Significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and job performance
Locus of Control • Internal locus of control • People who believe they control the events and consequences that affect their lives • External locus of control • those who believe their performance is the product of circumstances beyond their immediate control
Research Lessons • Internals display greater work motivation. • Internals have stronger expectations that effort leads to performance. • There is a stronger relationship between job satisfaction and performance for internals than for externals. • Internals obtain higher salaries and greater salary increases than externals.
Question? Joe believes his past performance in college is due to the difficulty of courses he has taken and his bad luck in getting tough instructors. Based on this, Joe: • has an external locus of control. • is a proactive personality. • is an extravert. • has a low degree of conscientiousness.
Emotional Stability • Individuals with high levels of emotional stability tend to be relaxed, secure, unworried, and less likely to experience negative emotions under pressure. • Those with low levels are prone to anxiety and tend to view the world negatively.
CSEs, Its Component Traits,and Outcomes • CSEs have been associated with increased job performance, job and life satisfaction, motivation, organizational citizenship behaviors, and better adjustment to international assignments. • They also were linked to lower stress and reduced conflict.
The Nature of Attitudes • Attitude • learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
The Nature of Attitudes • Affective component • the feelings or emotions one has about an object or situation • Cognitive component • the evaluation or belief one has about an object or situation • Behavioral component • how one intends to act or behave toward someone or something
When Attitudes and Reality Collide: Cognitive Dissonance • Cognitive dissonance • psychological discomfort a person experiences what his or her attitudes or beliefs are incompatible with his or her behavior
Cognitive Dissonance How people reduce dissonance • Change your attitude or behavior, or both • Belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior • Find consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones
Question? Alexa dreads going to work each day. She hates her job and her supervisor, but will not take time to look for a different job. She is experiencing ___________. • External locus of control • Cognitive dissonance • Internal locus of control • Halo error
How Stable are Attitudes? Three factors accounted for middle-age attitude stability: (1) greater personal certainty (2) perceived abundance of knowledge (3) a need for strong attitudes
Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Figure 5-3
Positive and Negative Emotions • Emotions • complex, relatively brief responses to particular information or experiences that change psychological and/or physiological states
Positive and Negative Emotions Figure 5-4
Emotional Intelligence • Emotional Intelligence • ability to manage oneself one’s relationships in mature and constructive ways
Question? Dave is not very patient with restaurant service and will often complain loudly if things don’t go as expected. He is not very high in __________. • Aggressiveness • Positive affectivity • Emotional intelligence • Behavioral attitude
Emotional Contagion and Emotional Labor • Emotional contagion • Someone’s bad mood sours your mood • Can literally catch another person’s mood or displayed emotions • Emotional labor • Masking true feelings and emotions
Video: Toying with Success: The McFarlane Companies • What personality traits do entrepreneurs like Todd McFarlane possess that distinguish them from other individuals? Do you think McFarlane has an internal or external locus of control? • What cognitive abilities do you think contributed most to McFarlane’s success? • Why is the development of new products such as sports figures critical to the McFarlane Companies? • How important are self-efficacy beliefs and intelligence in the creative process that leads to new products concepts?
Video Case: Generation Next Changes the Face of the Workplace • What characteristics of Generation Y employees are so different from Generation X or Baby Boomer employees? • How much responsibility for change should the organization take on and how much should the workers? • What programs have you seen in the workplace today that are designed to address these issues? Do most employers recognize this as an important issue?