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Immediate Intensive Interventions. Organizing Schools and Classrooms to Teach Every Child to Read: The Big Ideas. National Reading First Conference New Orleans July 2005. Stuart Greenberg, Deputy Director Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center

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organizing schools and classrooms to teach every child to read the big ideas

Immediate Intensive Interventions

Organizing Schools and Classrooms toTeach Every Child to Read: The Big Ideas

National Reading First Conference

New Orleans

July 2005

Stuart Greenberg, Deputy Director

Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center

Florida State University and The Florida Center for Reading Research

www.fcrr.org

slide3

Reading First’s model for preventing reading failure in grades K-3: Three big ideas

1. Increase the quality and consistency of instruction in every K-3 classroom. Provide initial instruction that is appropriate to the needs of the majority of students in the class

2. Conduct timely and valid assessments of reading growth to identify struggling readers

3. Provide high quality, intensive interventions to help struggling readers catch up with their peers

goals will drive plans
Goals Will Drive Plans
  • At least 80% of Kindergarten students achieve benchmark status
  • At least 80% of First Grade students achieve benchmark status
  • At least a 50% movement in grades 2 & 3 of students who were strategic to benchmark status
  • At least a 50% movement of students in grades 2 & 3 for those students who were intensive to at least the strategic status
slide5

Why don’t we have more effective interventions in our schools right now?

1. We may not have a conviction that doing the extra work interventions require will produce the effects we want

2. We need support to schedule more intensive interventions during the school day

3. We need to reallocate the resources to hire the extra personnel required to do the interventions

4. We need the personnel trained and skillful in the delivery of effective interventions

5. We need to match the intervention(s) to the needs of students based upon data

slide6

Three Organizing Principles for Reading Success

  • Earlier rather than later -Prevention and early intervention are supremely more effective and efficient than later intervention and remediation for ensuring reading success.
  • Schools, not just programs -Prevention and early intervention must be anchored to the school as the host environment and the primary context for improving student reading performance.
  • Evidence, not opinion -Prevention and early intervention pedagogy, programs, and procedures should be based on trustworthy scientific evidence.
slide7

Six Big Ideas about interventions for struggling readers:

1. They should be offered as soon as it is clear the student is lagging behind in development of skills or knowledge critical to reading growth – the practice problem

2. To be effective, they must increase the intensity of instruction and practice – they should be available in a range of intensity

3. They must provide the opportunity for explicit (direct) and systematic instruction and practice

slide8

Six Big Ideas about interventions for struggling readers:

4. They must provide skillful instruction including good error correction procedures

5. They must be guided by, and responsive to, data on student performance.

6. They must be motivating, engaging, and supportive—positive atmosphere

slide9

Two important Ideas about the value and nature of effective interventions in Reading First Schools

Getting to 100% requires going through the data

student by student

The student who is deficient will require a very different kind of effort in both the short and long run.

components of effective intervention instruction
Components of Effective Intervention Instruction

Effective reading instruction for all students.

Early identification of students at risk for reading problems.

Immediate intensive interventions for students at risk of reading problems.

Efficient, effective use of school resources to sustain interventions.

slide12

Why do we need interventions?

A central problem in reading instruction arises, not from the absolute level of children’s preparation for learning to read, but from the diversity in their levels of preparation

(Olson, 1998)

slide13

“Current difficulties in reading largely originate from rising demands for literacy, not from declining absolute levels of literacy”

Increasing demands for higher levels of literacy in the workforce require that we do better than we have ever done before in teaching all children to read well.

slide14

What are the areas most likely to require intensive intervention for students in RF schools?

Three main reasons children struggle in learning to read (NRC report)

1. Lack of preparation, or lack of talent that interferes with ability to understand the alphabetic principal (phonics) and learn to read words accurately and fluently

2. Lack of preparation, or lack of talent in the general verbal domain (i.e. vocabulary) that limits comprehension of written material

3. Low motivation to lean or behavior problems that interfere with learning in the classroom

start with the end in mind
Start With The End In Mind

Reading Is Thinking GuidedBy Print

slide16

In other words, student’s reading comprehension depends on:

How well they read the words on the page

How much knowledge they have, and how well they think

How motivated they are to do “the work” of comprehension

slide17

The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading

(Scarborough, 2001)

LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

LANGUAGE STRUCTURES

VERBAL REASONING

LITERACY KNOWLEDGE

SKILLED READING:

fluent execution and

coordination of word

recognition and text

comprehension.

increasingly

strategic

WORD RECOGNITION

PHON. AWARENESS

DECODING (and SPELLING)

SIGHT RECOGNITION

increasingly

automatic

Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.

slide18

Three potential stumbling blocks to becoming a good reader(NRC Report, 1998)

  • Difficulty learning to read words accurately and
  • fluently

2. Insufficient vocabulary, general knowledge, and reasoning skills to support comprehension of written language

3. Absence or loss of initial motivation to read, or failure

to develop a mature appreciation of the rewards of

reading.

slide19

The nature of the underlying difficulty for most children who have difficulty in learning to read

Weaknesses in the phonological area of language ability

inherent, or intrinsic, disability

Expressed primarily by delays in the development of phonemic awareness and phonics skills

slide20

Extreme difficulties mastering the use of “phonics” skills as an aid to early, independent reading

    • difficulties with the skills of blending and analyzing the sounds in words (phonemic awareness).
    • difficulties learning letter-sound correspondences
  • Slow development of “sight vocabulary” arising from:
    • limited exposure to text
    • lack of strategies to reliably identify words in text
slide21

Important fact about talent in the phonological language domain:

It is like most other talents in that it is distributed normally in the population

slide22

Children can be strong in this talent

“Phonological talent” is normally distributed in the population

Percentile Ranks

50th

16th

84th

2nd

98th

70

85

100

115

130

Standard Scores

slide23

Children can be moderately weak in this talent

“Phonological ability” is normally distributed in the population

Percentile Ranks

50th

16th

84th

2nd

98th

70

85

100

115

130

Standard Scores

slide24

Each of these kinds of weakness is normally distributed in the population

Serious difficulties-probably require special interventions and a lot of extra support

Percentile Ranks

50th

16th

84th

2nd

98th

70

85

100

115

130

Standard Scores

slide28

From a recent multi-disciplinary scientific review of the research:

“From all these different perspectives, two inescapable conclusions emerge. The first is that mastering the alphabetic principle is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading….”

and the second is that instructional techniques (namely phonics) that teach this principle directly are more effective than those that do not.”

Raynor, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. 2001. How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2: 31-73.

slide29

Three potential stumbling blocks to becoming a good reader(NRC Report, 1998)

  • Difficulty learning to read words accurately and
  • fluently

2. Insufficient vocabulary, general knowledge, and reasoning skills to support comprehension of written language

  • Absence or loss of initial motivation to read, or
  • failure to develop a mature appreciation of the
  • rewards of reading.
hart and risley 1995 conducted a longitudinal study of children and families from three groups
Hart and Risley (1995) conducted a longitudinal study of children and families from three groups:
  • Professional families
  • Working-class families
  • Families on welfare
slide32

Meaningful Differences

By the time the children were 3 years old, parents in less economically favored circumstances had said fewer different words in their cumulative monthly vocabularies than the children in the most economically advantaged families in the same period of time (Hart & Risley, 1995).

Cumulative Vocabulary

Children from professional families 1100 words

Children from working class families 700 words

Children from welfare families 500 words

instructional reach
Instructional reach:
  • Children enter school with a listening vocabulary ranging between 2500 to 5000.
  • First graders from higher SES groups know twice as many words as lower SES children (Graves & Slater, 1987)
  • Vocabulary differences at grade 2 may last throughout elementary school (Biemiller & Slonim, in press)
  • College entrants need about 11 to 14,000 root words (meter in thermometer or centimeter)
slide34

The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth

(Hirsch, 1996)

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

High Oral Language in Kindergarten

5.2 years difference

Reading Age Level

Low Oral Language in Kindergarten

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chronological Age

slide35

Four Critical Elements for More Robust Vocabulary Instruction

Select the right words to teach – Tier 2 words

absurd

fortunate

ridiculous

Develop child-friendly definitions for these words

Engage children in interesting, challenging, playful activities in which they learn to access the meanings of words in multiple contexts

Find a way to devote more time during the day to vocabulary instruction

slide36

Three potential stumbling blocks to becoming a good reader(NRC Report, 1998)

  • Difficulty learning to read words accurately and
  • fluently

2. Insufficient vocabulary, general knowledge, and reasoning skills to support comprehension of written language

  • Absence or loss of initial motivation to read, or
  • failure to develop a mature appreciation of the
  • rewards of reading.
slide37

The circular relationship between skill and motivation in reading

If we want children to learn to read well, we must find a way to induce them to read lots.

If we want to induce children to read lots, we must teach them to read well.

Marilyn Jager Adams

slide38

The consensus view of most important instructional features for interventions

Interventions are more effective when they:

Provide systematic and explicit instruction on whatever component skills are deficient: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension strategies

slide39

Features of Scientifically Based Reading Interventions

Intervention is MORE:

-Explicit and Systematic

-Intensive

-Supportive

How does intervention differ from core reading Instruction?

start with the end in mind1
Start With The End In Mind

Reading Is Thinking GuidedBy Print

explicit
Explicit
  • Nothing is left to chance; all skills are taught directly.
  • This is particularly helpful to students with weak phonological skills
  • Provides examples to lead to generalization.
systematic
Systematic
  • Instructional is purposeful and sequential.
  • Programmatic Scaffolding
  • The program of instruction is carefully sequenced so that students are explicitly taught the skills and knowledge they need for each new task they are asked to perform
programmatic scaffolding
Programmatic Scaffolding

Oral blending skills before blending printed words

Awareness of phonemes beforelearninghow they

are represented in print

Grapheme-phoneme knowledge before decoding

Vocabulary instruction before reading for meaning

Strategies for oral language comprehension that

support reading comprehension

intensive
Intensive
  • At-risk/struggling readers must improve their reading skills at a faster pace than typically achieving peers to make up for gaps.
  • Intensity can be accomplished in two ways
    • decreasing group size
    • Increasing the amount of time in instruction
  • The most direct way to increase learning rate is by
  • increasing the number of positive, or successful,
  • instructional interactions (pii) per school day.
supportive
Supportive
  • At-risk/struggling readers benefit from a supportive environment, both emotionally and cognitively.
  • Students need encouragement, feedback and positive reinforcement.
  • Responsive Scaffolding

After an error, or inadequate response, the teacher provides responsive support to assist the child in making a more adequate, or correct response

Through appropriate questioning or provision of information, the teacher supports the child in doing a task they cannot immediately do on their own

progress monitoring the teacher s map
Progress Monitoring - The Teacher’s Map

Whoops! Time to make a change!

Aimline

Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

progress monitoring assessment
Progress Monitoring Assessment
  • Purpose: Frequent, timely measures to determine whether students are learning enough of critical skills.
  • When: At minimum 3 times per year at critical decision making points.
  • Who: All students
  • Relation to Instruction: Indicates students who require additional assessment and intervention.

Discuss how you are using the data from progress monitoring

as it relates to students who are being taught through

immediate intensive interventions.

slide49

What does it take to effectively manage interventions?

Regular meetings in which student progress is discussed-grade level team meetings

Regular observations to be sure that instruction is being delivered in an effective manner – coach and principal

Well trained teachers or paraprofessionals who receive regular inservice support

slide50

How can immediate, intensive interventions be scheduled and delivered?

  • Delivered by regular classroom teacher during the “uninterrupted reading period”

2. Delivered by additional resource personnel during the “uninterrupted reading period”, or at other times during day

3. Delivered delivered by classroom and resource personnel during after school or before school programs

4. Delivered by well-trained and supervised paraprofessionals during the “uninterrupted reading period” or other times

5. Delivered by computers throughout the day

slide51

How can we insure that interventions are delivered consistently with high quality?

Professional development to provide knowledge of instructional strategies, content (scope and sequence and selection of materials), and appropriate practice/skill building activities -- use of assessment data to identify who should receive interventions and what their focus should be

Identification of high quality intervention programs/materials and professional development in their use and individualization.

slide52

How to choose evidence based programs to guide instruction

Why choose a well-developed intervention “program” to guide instruction?

It acts as a scaffold for good teaching behaviors

It insures a well-organized scope and sequence

It insures coordinated and aligned practice materials and activities

It should help with proper pacing and movement of instruction

slide53

How can we insure that interventions are delivered consistently with high quality?

Professional development to provide knowledge of instructional strategies, content (scope and sequence and selection of materials), and appropriate practice/skill building activities -- use of assessment data to identify who should receive interventions and what their focus should be

Identification of high quality intervention programs/materials and professional development in their use and individualization.

slide54

The Logic of Instructional Intensity

Many children are already behind in vocabulary and print knowledge when they enter school.

To achieve grade level standards by third grade, poor children must learn vocabulary words at a faster rate than their middle class peers in grades K-3

The most direct way to increase learning rate is by increasing the number of positive, or successful, instructional interactions (pii) per school day.

There are a variety of ways to increase the number of positive instructional interactions per school day

teaching reading is both essential and urgent
Teaching Reading is Both Essential and Urgent
  • Getting to 100% requires going through the bottom 20%.
  • Children who are at reading risk face the “tyranny of time” (Kame’enui, 1998).
  • Assuming students will ‘catch up’ with practice as usual is not wise. Catching up is a low probability occurrence.
  • The bottom 20% will require a very different kind of effort in both the short and long run.
instructional adjustments
Instructional Adjustments
  • Instructional programs, grouping, and time are adjusted and intensified according to learner performance and needs.
  • Making instruction more responsive to student learning

Instructional Adjustments Made in Response to Student Progress and Instructional Need

modifying instruction time
Modifying Instruction: Time

Adequate, Prioritized, and Protected Time for Reading Instruction and Practice

  • Schoolwide plan established to allocate sufficient reading time and coordinate resources
  • Additional time allocated for students not making adequate progress (supplemental & intervention programs)
  • Reading time prioritized and protected

from interruption

modifying instruction grouping
Modifying Instruction: Grouping
  • Differentiated instruction aligned with student needs
    • Students the furthest behind need smaller grouping arrangements
  • Creative and flexible grouping used to maximize performance
    • Cross classroom and grade grouping

Instruction, Grouping, and Scheduling That Optimizes Learning

creative and flexible grouping used to maximize performance
Creative and Flexible Grouping Used to Maximize Performance
  • Grouping Options
  • Students:
    • Within class, across class, across grade
  • Size:
    • Whole class, small group, three-on-one (less if needed)
  • Organization:
    • Teacher led, staff supported, cooperative learning
  • Location:
    • In classroom, outside of classroom
a final concluding thought
A final concluding thought….

There is no question but that “leaving no child behind in reading” is going to be a significant challenge…

It will involve professional development for teachers, school reorganization, careful assessments, and a relentless focus on the individual needs of every child…

slide62

Many things can wait; the child cannot. Now is the time his bones are being formed and his mind is being developed. To him, we cannot say tomorrow; his name is today!

Gabriel Mistral

slide63
Questions

Thank you!