STRESS. Honeylyn Salvador. STRESS. - is the relative force or prominence given to a syllable or word - Usually associated with pitch or the highness or lowness of a tone, length of sound and duration, and volume or loudness.
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- is the relative force or prominence given to a syllable or word
- Usually associated with pitch or the highness or lowness of a tone, length of sound and duration, and volume or loudness.
English is a stress-timed language. This means that any word, phrase ore sentence spoken in the language has stress and intonation that carry the rhythm of an utterance. Both stress and intonation must be mastered to achieve effective communication between speaker and listener.
1. strong / ’ /
2. medium / ^ /
3. weak / ﬞ /
To pronounce a syllable with strong stress:
1. use pitch level 3 or high
2. speak with a loud voice
3. make the sound long
To produce a syllable with medium stress:
1. speak with less volume
2. use a lower pitch
3. make the sound shorter
1. speak with little volume
2. use a low pitch
3. say the syllable lightly and quickly
4. give the vowel either an / ә / or an / I / sound
The study of stress is focused on three levels: word, phrase and sentence.
A. Words with primary stress on the first syllable
B. Words with primary stress on the second syllable
C. Words with primary stress on the third syllable aborìgines carousél avarìcious convaléscent violìn magazìne resumé JapanéseD. Words with primary stress on the fourth syllable abbreviátion enunciátion evacuátion melodramátic dramatizátion negotiátion superimpóse monosyllábic
E. Intensive- reflexive pronouns receive primary stress on self. yoursélf themsélves oursélves hersélf itsélf
F. Compound Nouns – are two or more individual words used together as one with a meaning different from that of the individual components and which together, function as a noun.dáybreak wéekend cásh registers
bóokstore swéetheart éditor-in-chief
a. Verbs that are made of two components, usually a preposition or an adverb and a main verb are called compound words. Such combinations are written as one word and be primary stress on the second component and secondary stress on the firs component. Thus we say:
undergó offsét counteráct
underbíd overthrów uphóld
b. When the two components are written separately with the verb coming before the preposition or adverb is called a two-word verb.
look ủp pick óut peddle óff use ủp
There are some two-word verbs, however, which have the strong stress on the first component as in the ff:
Cáll on lísten to lóok for wáit on
H. Compound Adjectives- carry the strong stress on the first component when they stand alone. When they are use in the modification structure, however, the strong stress falls on the noun component.
héll-for-leather hell-for-leather dríver
hérky-jerky herky-jerky gáit
Créstfallen crestfallen bállplayers
oréy-eyed orey-eyed bủll
ín-your-face in-your-face gáme
1. Wômen lôve shópping.
Some wômen lôve shópping.
A number of wômen lôve shópping.
A great number of wômen lôve shópping.
A very great number of wômen lôve shópping.
2. Gĭve him a pérmit.
You gîve him a pérmit.
You will gîve him a pérmit.
You have gîven him a pérmit
You should have gîven him a pérmit
4. Whêre are you dîning toníght?
5. English is the lîngua franca of the wórld.