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Naming Hydrocarbons PowerPoint Presentation
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Naming Hydrocarbons

Naming Hydrocarbons

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Naming Hydrocarbons

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  1. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • Determine the longest continuous (not necessarily straight) chain of carbon atoms. • The base name corresponds to the number of carbon atoms in the longest chain. (see Table 24.5) • The full name for the alkane will include the names of any branches.

  2. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • Determine the longest continuous (not necessarily straight) chain of carbon atoms.

  3. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • Any chain branching off the longest chain is named as an alkyl group. • Table 24.6 lists some alkyl groups.

  4. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • The complete name of a branch requires a number that locates the branch on the longest chain. • Always number from the end of the longest chain closest to the first branch.

  5. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • The complete name of a branch requires a number that locates the branch on the longest chain. 2-methylhexane

  6. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • When there are more than one alkyl branch of the same kind, this number is indicated by a prefix, such as di-, tri-, tetra-, used with the name of the alkyl group. • The position of each group on the longest chain is given by numbers.

  7. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • When there are more than one alkyl branch of the same kind, this number is indicated by a prefix, such as di-, tri-, tetra-, used with the name of the alkyl group. 3,4-dimethylhexane

  8. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • When there are two or more different branches, the name of each branch, with its position number, precedes the base name. • The branch names are placed in alphabetical order.

  9. Naming Hydrocarbons • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkanes. • When there are two or more different branches, the name of each branch, with its position number, precedes the base name. 3-ethyl-2-methylpentane

  10. Can you name it?

  11. Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkenes and alkynes. • The rules are essentially the same as those for alkanes, except that names end in –ene for alkenes and –yne for alkynes. • The position of the double (or triple) bond is indicated in the name by bond position number.

  12. Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkenes and alkynes. 3-methyl-1-pentene

  13. Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes • The following four IUPAC rules are applied in naming the branched-chain alkenes and alkynes. • Recall that alkenes also exhibit cis and trans isomerism and so either cis or trans must be included in the name.

  14. Derivatives of Hydrocarbons • A functional group is a reactive portion of a molecule that undergoes predictable reactions. • Table 24.7 lists some common organic functional groups. • In the previous sections we discussed the hydrocarbons and their reactions. • All other organic compounds can be considered to be derivatives of hydrocarbons.

  15. Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • Many of the important functional groups in organic compounds contain oxygen. • Examples are • alcohols • ethers • aldehydes • ketones • carboxylic acids • esters

  16. Some examples are methanol ethanol 2-propanol Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • An alcohol is a compound obtained by substituting a hydroxyl group (-OH) for an –H atom on a carbon atom of a hydrocarbon group.

  17. An example is diethyl ether Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • An ether is a compound with an oxygen “bridge” between two alkyl groups. • This is the most common ether, often called simply ether, used as an anesthetic.

  18. An example is ethanal Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • An aldehyde is a compound containing a carbonyl group with at least one H atom attached to it.

  19. An example is 2-butanone Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • A ketone is a compound containing a carbonyl group with two hydrocarbon groups attached to it.

  20. An example is ethanoic acid Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • A carboxylic acid is a compound containing the carboxyl group, -COOH.

  21. The general structure is Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen • An ester is a compound formed from a carboxylic acid, RCOOH, and an alcohol, R’OH.

  22. primary amine secondary amine tertiary amine Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen • Most organic bases are amines, which are compounds that are structurally derived by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia with hydrocarbon groups.

  23. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen • Most organic bases are amines, which are compounds that are structurally derived by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia with hydrocarbon groups. • Table 24.9 lists some common amines.

  24. The general formula for a common amide is Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen • Amides are compounds derived from the reaction of ammonia, or of a primary or secondary amine, with a carboxylic acid.

  25. Operational Skills • Writing a condensed structural formula • Predicting cis-trans isomers • Predicting the major product of an addition reaction • Writing the IUPAC name of a hydrocarbon given the structural formula, and vice versa

  26. Conceptual Problem 24.19