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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES PowerPoint Presentation
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS NEW ZEALAND PART 3A: EARTHQUAKES

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  1. LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSNEW ZEALANDPART 3A: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 

  2. Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s Restlessness Causes Movement of Tectonic Plates: • Earthquakes

  3. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN NEW ZEALAND FLOODS GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES HIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT VOLCANOES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

  4. TECTONIC PLATES

  5. New Zealand is in the southwest Pacific Ocean astride the “ring of fire,” a distinct belt of volcanic and earthquake activity that surrounds the Pacific Ocean

  6. SUBDUCTION OCCURS BENEATH THE NORTH ISLAND

  7. To the north of New Zealand and beneath the eastern North Island, the thin, dense, Pacific plate moves down beneath the thicker, lighter Indo-Australian plate in a process known as subduction (i.e., reverse faulting).

  8. Within the South Island the plate margin is marked by the Alpine Fault and the plates rub past each other horizontally (i.e., strike-slip)

  9. NEW ZEALAND’S SUBDUCTION ZONE AND ALPINE FAULT

  10. About 20,000 earthquakes (most, but not all are small) are recorded in New Zealand every year as a result of its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire

  11. SEISMICITY MAP: VICINITY OF CHRISTCHURCH

  12. ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER

  13. HAZARDS EXPOSURE VULNERABILITY LOCATION ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK

  14. A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT WITH THE VULNERABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS OF NEW ZEALAND’S COMMUNITIES

  15. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS:ARE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS

  16. TSUNAMI FAULT RUPTURE DAMAGE/ LOSS TECTONIC DEFORMATION DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS FOUNDATION FAILURE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE/ LOSS SITE AMPLIFICATION DAMAGE/ LOSS LIQUEFACTION DAMAGE/ LOSS LANDSLIDES DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS AFTERSHOCKS DAMAGE/ LOSS SEICHE DAMAGE/ LOSS GROUND SHAKING

  17. GROUND SHAKING

  18. PROBABILISTIC GROUND SHAKING MAP (CHRISTCHURCH IN YELLOW)

  19. NEW ZEALAND’S CITIES

  20. The largest cities within this high risk zone are the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier; all of them have experienced damaging earthquakes.

  21. NOTE: The central part of most cities is comprised mainly of old, vulnerable brick and unreinforced masonry buildings, which are highly susceptible to damage.

  22. 35 30 25 UNREINFORCED MASONRY, BRICK OR STONE 20 REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH UNREINFORCED WALLS 15 10 REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH REINFORCEDWALLS STEEL FRAME ALL METAL & WOOD FRAME 5 0 V VI VII VIII IX CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE INTENSITY

  23. CAUSES OF DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN EARTHQUAKES FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

  24. A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help  when three continuums: 1)  people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, landslides,..) intersect at a point in space and time.

  25. Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.

  26. THE REASONS ARE . . . • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.

  27. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.

  28. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community has NODISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.

  29. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.

  30. THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.

  31. THE ALTERNATIVE TO DISASTER:EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE

  32. QUAKE HAZARDS • INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION • PREPAREDNESS • PROTECTION • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and • RECONSTRUCTION EARTHQUAKE RISK POLICY OPTIONS ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK QUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION NEW ZEALAND’S COMMUNITIES HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  33. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  34. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  35. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

  36. NEW ZEALAND’S NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES M7.1 : SATURDAY, SEPT. 3, 2010

  37. TWO EARTHQUAKES SEVERELY CUT NEW ZEALAND’S 2011 ECONOMIC GROWTH A DEEP (33 KM) M7.1 AND A SHALLOW (4 KM) M6.3 QUAKE SIX MONTHS APART COMBINE TO HALF NEW ZEALAND’S ECONOMIC GROWTH

  38. M7.1 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES NEAR CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND A DEEP (33 KM) QUAKE LOCATED 50 KMFROM CHRISTCHURCH STRUCK AT 4:35 AM SEPTEMBER 3, 2010

  39. EPICENTER: NEAR CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND

  40. In Christchurch, a city of 372,000, power and water services were knocked out, facades fell off buildings, homes businesses, and bridges were damaged by strong shaking, fires were ignited, and the Christchurch Airport was closed.

  41. IMPACTSNumerous injuries, but no deaths, largely due to the 4:35 a.m. time of occurrence, NOT BECAUSE the buildings were resilient to the strong ground shaking

  42. DAMAGE: BFORE (TOP) AND AFTER (BOTTOM)

  43. TYPICAL DAMAGE: UNREINFORCED MASONRY BUILDINGS

  44. DAMAGE: CHRISTCHURCH

  45. DAMAGE TO CARS

  46. DAMAGE: CHRISTCHURCH

  47. POUNDING

  48. FIRE

  49. DAMAGE: CHRISTCHURCH

  50. DAMAGE: CHRISTCHURCH