LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSNEW ZEALANDPART 3A: EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s Restlessness Causes Movement of Tectonic Plates: • Earthquakes
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN NEW ZEALAND FLOODS GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES HIGH BENEFIT/COST PROGRAMS FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT VOLCANOES ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
New Zealand is in the southwest Pacific Ocean astride the “ring of fire,” a distinct belt of volcanic and earthquake activity that surrounds the Pacific Ocean
To the north of New Zealand and beneath the eastern North Island, the thin, dense, Pacific plate moves down beneath the thicker, lighter Indo-Australian plate in a process known as subduction (i.e., reverse faulting).
Within the South Island the plate margin is marked by the Alpine Fault and the plates rub past each other horizontally (i.e., strike-slip)
About 20,000 earthquakes (most, but not all are small) are recorded in New Zealand every year as a result of its location in the Pacific Ring of Fire
HAZARDS EXPOSURE VULNERABILITY LOCATION ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK RISK
A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT WITH THE VULNERABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENTS OF NEW ZEALAND’S COMMUNITIES
TSUNAMI FAULT RUPTURE DAMAGE/ LOSS TECTONIC DEFORMATION DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS FOUNDATION FAILURE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE/ LOSS SITE AMPLIFICATION DAMAGE/ LOSS LIQUEFACTION DAMAGE/ LOSS LANDSLIDES DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS AFTERSHOCKS DAMAGE/ LOSS SEICHE DAMAGE/ LOSS GROUND SHAKING
The largest cities within this high risk zone are the nation's capital, Wellington, followed by Hastings then Napier; all of them have experienced damaging earthquakes.
NOTE: The central part of most cities is comprised mainly of old, vulnerable brick and unreinforced masonry buildings, which are highly susceptible to damage.
35 30 25 UNREINFORCED MASONRY, BRICK OR STONE 20 REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH UNREINFORCED WALLS 15 10 REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH REINFORCEDWALLS STEEL FRAME ALL METAL & WOOD FRAME 5 0 V VI VII VIII IX CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE INTENSITY
CAUSES OF DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN EARTHQUAKES FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, landslides,..) intersect at a point in space and time.
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST because they are UNPROTECTED with the appropriate codes and standards.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community has NODISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for concerted local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE . . . • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
QUAKE HAZARDS • INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION • PREPAREDNESS • PROTECTION • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and • RECONSTRUCTION EARTHQUAKE RISK POLICY OPTIONS ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK QUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION NEW ZEALAND’S COMMUNITIES HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES PREPAREDNESS FOR THE LIKELY GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL EARTHQUAKES TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE
NEW ZEALAND’S NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES M7.1 : SATURDAY, SEPT. 3, 2010
TWO EARTHQUAKES SEVERELY CUT NEW ZEALAND’S 2011 ECONOMIC GROWTH A DEEP (33 KM) M7.1 AND A SHALLOW (4 KM) M6.3 QUAKE SIX MONTHS APART COMBINE TO HALF NEW ZEALAND’S ECONOMIC GROWTH
M7.1 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES NEAR CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND A DEEP (33 KM) QUAKE LOCATED 50 KMFROM CHRISTCHURCH STRUCK AT 4:35 AM SEPTEMBER 3, 2010
In Christchurch, a city of 372,000, power and water services were knocked out, facades fell off buildings, homes businesses, and bridges were damaged by strong shaking, fires were ignited, and the Christchurch Airport was closed.
IMPACTSNumerous injuries, but no deaths, largely due to the 4:35 a.m. time of occurrence, NOT BECAUSE the buildings were resilient to the strong ground shaking