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Words to know:. Lynching: An extrajudicial execution carried out by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate, control, or otherwise manipulate a population of people Segregation: Laws that separate white and black people in public and private facilities.
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Words to know: • Lynching: An extrajudicial execution carried out by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate, control, or otherwise manipulate a population of people • Segregation: Laws that separate white and black people in public and private facilities. • Jim Crow Laws: • A series of rigid laws that in effect made African Americans second class citizens in the south between 1877-1960s: Example website
Segregation and DiscriminationAfrican Americans Fight Legal Discrimination • Voting restrictions • Literacy tests: voters had to prove they were literate, officials could pass or fail applicants as they wished. • Poll taxes: annual tax paid to gain voting access, many blacks and white sharecroppers couldn’t afford it. • Grandfather clauses: reinstated voters who failed literacy test or couldn’t pay poll tax if their father or grandfather had been able to vote before 1867. • Supreme Court upheld voting restrictions, didn’t violate 15th Amendment
Segregation and DiscriminationJim Crow Laws • Laws that separated blacks and whites. • Applied in both public and private facilities. • Term “segregation” used to describe system of separating people based on race. http://www.swisseduc.ch/english/jim_crow/icons/drinking.jpg http://www.literacyrules.com/Black%20History/JimCrow56.jpg
Segregation and DiscriminationPlessy v. Ferguson • Homer A. Plessy was denied a seat in a railroad car because he was 1/8 black. • Challenged Louisiana law required rail companies segregate white and black passengers. • Rail company argued white and black facilities were equal. • Supreme Court ruled in favor of the railroad. • Louisiana law didn’t violate 14th Amendment • “Separate but Equal” permitted legalized segregation. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/217/504458392_0655060cf8.jpg
Segregation and DiscriminationViolence and Discrimination in the North • Blacks had to follow “racial etiquette” • Illegal executions “lynching's” of blacks peaked in the 1880’s. 5,000 lynched after Civil War. • Blacks targeted more if they became successful or didn’t show enough respect to white women. • In the North blacks were forced into segregated neighborhoods, faced discrimination at work, were denied membership in unions, and were hired as a last resort. http://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/images/3jimc0315b.jpg
What do you think? • The most common cause for a lynching was the accusation of a black man’s sexual assault of a white woman. • Do you think that black men, living under Jim Crow Laws, were really dumb enough to come onto a white women as much as they were accused? • Who do you think assaulted the other race’s women more often, white men or black men? • What was the case during slavery, do you know? If not, can you guess?
Segregation and DiscriminationDiscrimination in the West • Mexicans hired on railroads; they could handle climate and forced to work for less. • Mexicans also worked in the developing fruit and vegetable fields. • Blacks and Mexicans fell victim to “debt peonage.” • Chinese were main labor force in building of transcontinental railroad. • Chinese influential in shoemaking, cigar making, and woolen-mill industries. • Whites feared job loss and segregated them. • 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act prohibited further Chinese immigration to U.S. http://daphne.palomar.edu/scrout/ams105/transcontinental-railroad-2.jpg