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Signal Words & Patterns of Organization

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  1. Signal Words & Patterns of Organization

  2. SIGNAL WORDS & PATTERNS of ORGANIZATION • Authors use two common methods to show relationships between ideas: • Signal Words • Patterns of Organization (a.k.a. Thought Patterns )

  3. Signal Words • Signal Wordsare words or phrases that signal thought patterns by showing logical relationships between ideas within a sentence and between sentences. • Example:Fernando is actively involved in several children's community organizations. For example, he organizes all the Boy Scout camping trips, and he coaches a youth soccer league. The children know Fernando likes them because he takes an active part in their community activities.

  4. Patterns of Organization Patterns of organization, also called thought patterns, are established by using signal words to show the relationship between ideas in a paragraph or passage.

  5. Example: Relationships Within a Sentence • Weightlifting builds and tones muscles and it also builds bone density.

  6. Example: Relationships Between Sentences • Roberto and Dorothea had a good time when they vacationed in Florida. In fact, they arranged to stay an extra three days because they were having so much fun.

  7. Patterns of Organization • Patterns of Organizationare established by using signal words to show the logical relationships between ideas in a paragraph, passage, or textbook chapter. • The common patterns of organization are… • List of Items (Listing) • Time Order (Time and Process) • Comparison and/or Contrast • Cause and Effect • Definition and Example

  8. The List of Items Pattern • A list of items is a series or set of reasons, examples, details, or points that support an idea. • Changing the order of the details does not change their meaning. • Addition words are often used in this pattern.

  9. And Also Furthermore Another Besides Final Finally First First of all For one thing In addition Last Last of all Moreover Next One Second Third Addition Signal Words Often Used in the List of Items Pattern

  10. List of Items Example An animal as large and beautiful as a horse needs to be cared for carefully. First, cleaning its stall on a regular basis is absolutely necessary. In addition, a horse needs to be groomed 3-5 times a week. Finally, a horse needs to be fed and exercised on a daily basis.

  11. The Time Order Pattern of Organization • The time order patterngenerally shows a series of events. • The actions or events are listed in the order in which they did, or must, occur (chronological order). • There are two types: • The order in which events occur over time (chronological) • The order in which events must occur in a process

  12. After Afterward As Before Currently During Eventually Finally First Last Later While Meanwhile Next Now Often Previously Second Since Soon Then Ultimately Until When Signal Words Used in the Time Order Pattern

  13. Time Order (Chronological) Example When Corbin decided to become a teacher, he had no idea that he would become a career student. First, he earned an associate’s degree at his local community college. Next, he transferred to the state university where he earned a bachelor’s degree in secondary education. Then, during his early years as a teacher, he found he was excited about teaching. After three years of teaching, his passion for his job led him to earn a master’s degree and finally, a doctoral degree.

  14. Time Order (Process) Example To properly clean between your teeth, you should floss each day. First, break off about 18 inches of floss and wind most of it around one of your middle fingers. Second, wind the remaining floss around the same finger of the other hand. Third, hold the floss tightly between your thumbs and forefingers. Next, guide the floss between your teeth using a gentle rubbing motion. Following these steps each day will help you keep your teeth healthy for life.

  15. Comparison and/or Contrast • Comparison points out the ways in which two or more ideas are alike. • Writing, like exercise, gets better with practice. • Contrast points out the ways in which two or more ideas are different. • “Women differ from men in their styles of communication.”

  16. Alike As As well as Equally In like manner In a similar fashion In a similar manner In the same way Just as Just like Like Likewise Resemble Same Similar Similarly Signal Words of Comparison

  17. Although On the one hand Conversely To the contrary Nevertheless Differently At the same time In contrast Different Still On the contrary Even though Instead As opposed to On the other hand Difference Despite Yet But In spite of Different from Signal Words of Contrast

  18. Comparison Example Retrievers and Setters are alike in several ways. First, both are large dog breeds. Second, they are similar in appearance. For example, their heads, ears, and tails are the same in shape and size. Finally, both dogs are bred as hunting animals.

  19. Contrast Example English and math are very different subjects for students. First of all, one deals with the study of words, but the other deals with the study of numbers. Another difference is that using language activates the left side of the brain; onthe other hand, doing math problems activates the right side of the brain.

  20. Comparison and/or Contrast Example • Yoga and Pilates share some similar characteristics and one important difference. Both yoga and Pilates are forms of exercise that improve the body’s ability to move smoothly. However, the primary goal of Pilates is to strengthen the stomach and buttock muscles. On the other hand, yoga does not focus on any one part of the body. Instead, yoga works the opposing muscles of the entire body.”

  21. Cause and Effect • A cause states why something happens. • An effect states a result or outcome. • “Because Selena memorized the algebra formulas and practiced using them, she did well on the test.” • “Due to the amount of snow on the streets and highways, schools and businesses have shut down.”

  22. Because Consequently Accordingly Because of Leads to Results in As a result Due to If-then Since So Therefore Thus Cause and Effect Signal Words

  23. Cause and Effect Example Students who study hard can expect their work to result in high grades. For instance, students who begin their research papers early in the semester will earn high marks accordingly. In addition, if students study all week long for quizzes, then, they will earn high marks.

  24. Definition and Example Pattern • In this pattern, the author provides a definition and then offers an example or a series of examplesto clarify the definition. • Example: [TheInternetis a worldwide, electronic resource of information. (definition)] [ For example, anyone with access to the Internet can check today’s weather forecast and check up on news happening around the world. (example)]

  25. Definition signal words: Is Are Means Urban stressisthe emotional and psychological impact of working and living in nerve-racking, crowded locations. For example,a person suffering from urban stress may need to give up a high paying job in the city to take a lower-paying job in a small town. Definition Words

  26. an illustration for example for instance including once such as like to illustrate typically Signal Words that Introduce Examples

  27. Definition and Example Example A textbookis a book used in the study of a subject. For instance, a textbook may contain information about a subject. A book required for a geology course is an example of this type of text. An example of another kind of textbook would be a fictional work. The novel The Scarlet Letter, by the American author Nathanial Hawthorne, is one illustrationof such a book.

  28. Patterns of Organization in Academic Reading • Authors use signal words to make relationships between ideas clear and easy to understand. • Critical readers look for the author’s thought pattern.

  29. Which pattern is it? Trees will grow best if planted correctly. First, select an open area of lawn large enough for the tree to grow. Next, dig a hole twice as large as the tree’s root ball. Third, place buckets of water and a dose of fertilizer in the bottom of the hole. Then, position the tree in the center of the hole. Afterward, fill in the hole. Finally, mulch around the base of the tree and water again. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  30. Which pattern is it? Trees will grow best if planted correctly. First, select an open area of lawn large enough for the tree to grow. Next, dig a hole twice as large as the tree’s root ball. Third, place buckets of water and a dose of fertilizer in the bottom of the hole. Then, position the tree in the center of the hole. Afterward, fill in the hole. Finally, mulch around the base of the tree and water again. __ list of items X time order (process) __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  31. Which pattern is it? Parenting style is a group of activities that create a family’s emotional connections. For instance, a parenting style includes the way in which parents speak to their children, such as in an angry or happy way. Another example is the way parents connect with their children physically. Hugging children is an example of this type of interaction. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  32. Which pattern is it? Parenting style is a group of activites that create a family’s emotional connections. For instance, a parenting style includes the manner in which parents speak to their children, such as in an angry or happy way. Another example is the way parents connect with their children physically. Hugging children is an example of this type of interaction. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast X definition and example

  33. Which pattern is it? When stock prices reflect information available to the investors, the stock market is well-organized; in contrast, when stock prices do not reflect all information, the stock market is not well-organized. However, some investors believe the best time to buy stock is when organization drops off. On the other hand, certain investors avoid making changes during these times. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  34. Which pattern is it? When stock prices reflect information available to the investors, the stock market is well-organized; in contrast, when stock prices do not reflect all information, the stock market is not well-organized. However, some investors believe the best time to buy stock is when organization drops off. On the other hand, certain investors avoid making changes during these times. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect Xcomparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  35. Which pattern is it? When performing a chemistry experiment, several safety rules need to be followed. For one thing, all students should wear safety glasses. In addition, students should put on lab coats before beginning. Finally, the students should make sure the emergency showers are in working order. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example __ space order __ classification

  36. Which pattern is it? When performing a chemistry experiment, several safety rules need to be followed before beginning the lab assignment. For one thing, all students should wear safety glasses. In addition, students should put on lab coats before beginning. Finally, the students should make sure the emergency showers are in working order. X list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example __ space order __ classification

  37. Which pattern is it? High school and college are alike in some ways but different in others. For example, both high school and college classes can be challenging. However, high school classes generally meet five days a week whereas college classes meet only two or three days a week. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example __ space order __ classification

  38. Which pattern is it? High school and college are alike in some ways but different in others. For example, both high school and college classes can be challenging. However, high school classes generally meet five days a week whereas college classes meet only two or three days a week. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect X comparisonand/or contrast __ definition and example __ space order __ classification

  39. Which pattern is it? Marijuana has several short-term effects. One result is physical. It speeds up the heart and reddens the eyes. Another outcome is mental. It can cause feelings of silliness. Finally, marijuana use often results in feelings of tiredness. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ Comparison and/or Contrast __ definition and example

  40. Which pattern is it? Marijuana causes several short-term effects. One result is physical. It speeds up the heart and reddens the eyes. Another outcome is mental. It can cause feelings of silliness. Finally, marijuana use often resultsin feelings of tiredness. __ list of items __time order X cause and effect __ Comparison and/or Contrast __ definition and example __ space order __ classification

  41. Which pattern is it? Marnie began her day early on Monday. First, her alarm went off at 6:00 am. Next, she got up and showered and brushed her teeth. Afterward, she got dressed and headed for the kitchen. Then, after a quick breakfast, she was out the door by 7:17 am. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ Comparison and/or Contrast __ definition and example

  42. Which pattern is it? Marnie began her day early on Monday. First, her alarm went off at 6:00 am. Next, she got up and showered and brushed her teeth. Afterward, she got dressed and headed for the kitchen. Then, after a quick breakfast, she was out the door by 7:17 am. __ list of items X time order (chronological) __ cause and effect __ Comparison and/or Contrast __ definition and example

  43. Which pattern is it? Humans and apes share several similarities. First, both can walk upright on two feet. Likewise, both have opposing thumbs for grasping. In a similar manner, both spend many years raising their offspring. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect __ comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  44. Which pattern is it? Humans and apes share several similarities. First, both can walk upright on two feet. Likewise, both have opposing thumbs for grasping. In a similar manner, both spend many years raising their offspring. __ list of items __ time order __ cause and effect X comparison and/or contrast __ definition and example

  45. Review • Signal wordsare words and phrases that show the relationships between ideas. • A thought pattern is established by using signal words to show the logical relationship between ideas in a paragraph or passage. • Chronology and process are two uses of the time orderthought pattern. • Transitions of time signal that the writer is describing when something occurred. • In addition to showing a chain of events, the time order pattern is used to show steps, stages, or directions that can be repeated at any time to complete a process. • First, next, then, and afterward are examplesof time order signal words.

  46. Review • The list of items pattern provides the reader with a series or set of reasons, examples, details, or points that support an idea. • Unlike the process pattern, changing the order of the details does not change their meaning. • Signal words of addition, such as and, also, and furthermore are generally used to indicate a list pattern.

  47. Review • A Comparison points out the ways two or more ideas are alike. • The words like, similarly, and likewise show the comparisonpattern. • A Contrast points out the ways two or more ideas are different. • The words however,on the other hand, and difference show the contrast pattern. • Acausestates why something happens. • If-Then,consequently, andaccordinglysignal a cause. • An effectstates a result or outcome. • Leads to, results in, and thus signal an effect. • In the definition and example pattern, the author provides a definition and then offers an example or a series of examples to clarify the definition. • The verbs is, are, and means are signals of a definition. • For example, in illustration, and for instance signal an example.