African Migration and Aids in Europe: the changes of paradigms Dr Elhadji MBAYE Science po Grenoble/ IRD/ U. Montreal email@example.com
Introduction • 1. Aids and migration in Europe is an issue betweenrich and poor countries. • 2. Heterogenenous contribution of migrants in European countries HIV epidemic. • 3. Aidsamong migrants in Europe do not concernonlythosecomingfrom SSA. • Focus on Aidsamong Black migrants comingfrom SSA in Europe.
Aidsamong SSA in Europe • 1. Heterosexual infections • 2. Feminisation • 3. Late HIV/AidsDiagnosis • 4. Socioeconomic issues • 5. Cuturalcompetences
Feminisation of Aidsamong SSA migrants • From 1999 to 2006, 41% of new cases HIV reportedinfectedthrough MTC in Europe werefrom SSA. • Theirvulnerabilityisboth social and biological bases. • Affected by genderinequalities, stigmatisation, isolation… • Substantial challenges are needed to improvetheir living conditions as migrants, women, black, LHIV: four vulnerabilities!
Who are migrants LHIV en Europe? • Undocumented migrants : « illegal migrants », « Sans papiers » : thosewithoutanylegalresidence in the country in whichthey are living • Legal migrants : thosewho have a permit card to stay and move in Europe • Foreigners: thosewho have an othernationality • Asylumseekers, refugees : protected by the Geneva convention • Immigrants: bornforeigner in an other country • « Ethnicminorities », migrants : groupingthosewho have a migrant background (natives whose parents are migrants, immigrants…) • Vulnerability to HIV/Aids and access to health care and to a resident permit dependwhether MLIH are in one of thesecategories.
Changes of political and researchparadigms • A riskyapproach A public healthapproach • A contain and control Strategy A cooperation and inclusion approach • A SES approach Racial and Ethnicminortiesapproach
Access to healthcare for UM (PICUM, MDM) • 1/3 of UM in Europe are unaware of their rights to healthcare. • 70% of theoretical beneficiaries do not have access to healthcare. • The main actions must be to encourage EU states to respect the International and European conventions guarantying access to heathcare for all human beings condemning xenophobia and racism.
Theoretical and effective access to health (MDM) Obstacles in accessing care Proportion of out of status people with theoretical and effective access to free healthcare
UM and HIV : unawareness of health services available (MDM, 2006) Frequency of unawareness of free HIV treatments Frequency of unawareness of free HIV screening
Criminalisation of HIV Transmission by SSA migrants • Prosecutions of migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in a lot of European countries. • The helpful role of the media. • Its consequences in violating human rights : lack of effective care, imprisonment, internment in detention centres, deportations…
Deportation of African migrants living with HIV/Aids In Europe, migrants LAIDS canbeprotectedagainstdeportation by article 3 of ECHR. • BUT because of restrictive interpretations of this article… a lot of deportations • In UK • In France and others countries… Result : People are convicted to deathwhenthey are deported in countries without accessible treatment!
Humanrightsinstead of humanitarian Not a Humanitarianpoliticalapproach But : 1. Humanrights. 2. Public healthapproach. 3. Fightingagainsthealthinequalities
Positive aspects • The decreaseof infections among migrants… • Theincrease of Aids programmes targeting migrants • The mobilization of CBOs • The mobilsation of NGOs • The mobilisation of Europeanresearch and political networks
Conclusion • Curry on fighting against misconceptions • Stop linking immigration control policies with fighting against aids programmes • Curry on reinforcing social mobilization against Aids involving migrants as stakeholders