BUTLER’S TOURISM LIFE CYCLE MODEL YOU WILL LEARN: APPLICATION OF THE MODEL TO SPAIN’S COSTA del SOL APPLYING TODAYS TOURIST DESTINATIONS TO THE MODEL
Butler’s Tourism Life Cycle Model • Based on MEDC tourism • Life Cycle of a Resort • Tourism viewed as a resource • 6 Stages • Exploration • Involvement • Development • Consolidation • Stagnation • Decline OR Rejuvenation
Exploration • Small number of tourist attracted by culture / natural beauty • Limited numbers • Few facilities exist
Development • Large numbers of tourists • Control of market moves from locals to external bodies e.g. TNC’s • Conflict between residents and tourists
Success • At this stage mass tourism replaces what was once the original economic function of the settlement. • It may appear that the local culture is being diminished by a more international culture
Stagnation • Tourist numbers plateau • Older facilities seen as “second rate” • Peak tourist numbers reached • Resort no longer fashionable
Decline OR Rejuvenation • Attractiveness continues to decline • Visitors lost to other resorts / destinations • Resort becomes dependant on day / weekend visitors from limited geographical area • Unless efforts made to modernise and rejuvenate resort will continue to decline
Case Study Spain - Costa del Sol
Exploration • 1960’s only 0.4 million tourists to the Costa del Sol, visiting for the beach holidays • Involvement • 1970's numbers rose to 3 million. • Farmland built on, infrastructure improved. • Transition from resource based to demand based • Development & Consolidation • 1980’s numbers rocketed to 7 million (carrying capacity reached) • Clubs, bars, restaurants and more hotels were built, leading to environmental degradation.
Stagnation • Late 1980’s area began to stagnate, and was no longer fashionable. • Attractive mountainous area blocked by large hotel developments, • Beaches dirty from litter left by tourists • Polluted from excessive sewage. • Strain on resources e.g. water • It takes 60 000 gallons to run a luxury hotel for a day.
Decline OR Rejuvenation?? • 1990s Costa del Sol began rejuvenation. • Beaches tidied &achieved EU Blue Flag • VAT cut to 6% to encourage tourists and businesses • Tourism began to diversify to eco tourism and heritage tourism. • Development of Coto Donana national park to 'Costa Donana’ abandoned • Wetland area popular with rare birds • Previous development had seen a drop in the water table and the death of 30 000 wild birds form pesticide contamination
TASK • In pairs apply the resorts you have been given to the larger copy of the model. • Discuss your reasons for placing the resorts at a stage of the model. • Finalise the applied model with a class discussion.