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Perspectives of Pharmacy Education. Leanne Lai, Ph.D. Associate Professor Director of International Program Magdaline Exantus, M.S. Mission. What is the Mission of Pharmacy Education? Pharmaceutical education is responsible for preparing students to function:

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perspectives of pharmacy education

Perspectives of Pharmacy Education

Leanne Lai, Ph.D. Associate Professor

Director of International Program

Magdaline Exantus, M.S.

mission
Mission
  • What is the Mission of Pharmacy Education?

Pharmaceutical education is responsible for

preparing students to function:

    • Mission for the Profession of Pharmacy
    • Mission for the Pharmacy Practice
pharmacy profession
Pharmacy Profession
  • What is the Mission of our profession?

To Serve Society

pharmacy practice
Pharmacy Practice
  • What is the mission of our practice?

Dispensing

Pharmaceutical Care

Rational Use of Drugs

evolution of pharmacy education in us
Evolution of Pharmacy Educationin US
  • 1820s part-time program
  • 1870s full-time 2 year program
  • 1920s full-time 3 year program
  • 1920s full-time 4 year B.S.program
  • 1950s full-time 4-6 year Pharm.D.
  • ...
  • 2004 Entry Level Pharm.D. program (ACPE)
pharmacy education in us
Pharmacy Education in US
  • Pre-professional Pharmacy Study
    • Two years of university level pre-professional education
    • Basic sciences, humanities, social sciences
    • Pharmacy College Admissions Test
pharmacy education in us1
Pharmacy Education in US
  • The professional Pharmacy Curriculum
    • At least 5 years beyond high school (ACPE)
    • Bachelor of Science (BS) pharmacy (5 yrs)
    • Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) (6 yrs)
  • Post Professional Pharmacy
    • Graduate School
      • Master
      • Ph.D.
    • Residencies
      • Pharmacy Practice residencies
      • Specialized residencies
curriculum comparison by country
Australia France

Bolivia Germany

Brazil Haiti

China Honduras

Colombia India

Cuba Jamaica

Finland Japan

Taiwan Thailand

Korea Trinidad

Pakistan Turkey

Peru Venezuela

Philippines Vietnam

Saudi Arabia S. Africa

Ukraine

Curriculum Comparison- by country
pharmacy education curriculum
Pharmacy Education- Curriculum
  • Biomedical Science
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Behavioral, Social & Administrative

Pharmacy Science

  • Pharmacy Practice
  • Professional Experience
  • Electives/others (Modified From ACPE Report)
biomedical sciences
Biomedical Sciences
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Chemistry (Modified From ACPE Report)
biomedical science data from nsu international program 2004 2005 admission lai et al
Biomedical Science(Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al)

COUNTRY CREDITS

  • (USA) NSU 26(pre- pharmacy) + 15(Pharm.D)=41
  • Australia 54.0
  • Pakistan 20.0
  • S. Africa 36.0
  • Venezuela 36.0
  • Bolivia 41.0
  • Korea 33.5
  • Japan 34.0
  • Ukraine 42.3
  • Cuba 54.0
  • Thailand 51.5
  • Trinidad 25.0
  • Taiwan 37.3
  • Finland 30.5
  • India 27.5
pharmaceutical sciences
Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Pharmacognosy
  • Pharmacology
  • Toxicology
  • Biopharmaceutics
  • Pharmacokinetics (Modified From ACPE Report)
pharmaceutical sciences data from nsu international program 2004 2005 admission lai et al
Pharmaceutical Sciences(Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al)

COUNTRY CREDITS

  • (USA) NSU 0 (pre- pharmacy) + 29 (Pharm.D)=29
  • Australia 46.0
  • Pakistan 69.5
  • S. Africa 30.0
  • Venezuela 32.0
  • Bolivia 12.5
  • Korea 93.0
  • Japan 95.0
  • Ukraine 48.3
  • Cuba 51.0
  • Thailand 55.5
  • Trinidad 27.0
  • Taiwan 38.2
  • Finland 43.0
  • India 76.9
behavioral social administrative pharmacy science
Behavioral, Social & Administrative Pharmacy Science
  • Pharmacoeconomics
  • Pharmacy Practice Management
  • Pharmacy Communication Skills
  • Pharmacy Ethics
  • Pharmacy Law
  • Biostatistics
  • Research Design
  • Epidemiology (Modified From ACPE Report)
slide15
Behavioral, Social & Administrative Pharmacy Sciences(Data from NSU-international program 2004, 2005 admission, Lai, et.al)

COUNTRY CREDITS

  • (USA) NSU 6 (pre- pharmacy) + 16 (Pharm.D)= 22.0
  • Australia 40.0
  • Pakistan 0.0
  • S. Africa 18.0
  • Venezuela 12.0
  • Bolivia 8.5
  • Korea 2.0
  • Japan 6.0
  • Ukraine 5.3
  • Cuba 0.0
  • Thailand 5.8
  • Trinidad 36.0
  • Taiwan 5.6
  • Finland 4.5
  • India 8.5
recommendations to taiwan pharmacy curriculum
Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum
  • Increase the academic credits of :
    • Behavioral, social, communication and administrative (Pharmacy Practice Related)
      • Social Behavioral Pharmacy
      • Communication skills
      • Health care delivery system
      • Health/Pharmaco Economics
      • Practice Management
      • Pharmacy Law and regulatory affair
      • Ethics
      • Research Methods/Drug literature evaluation
pharmacy practice1
Pharmacy Practice
  • Compounding & Preparing Dosage
  • Physical Assessment
  • Disease-State Management
  • Therapeutic
  • Patient Care Management
  • Self-Care / Non-Prescription Drugs
  • Drug Information & Literature Evaluations

(Modified From ACPE Report)

pharmacy practice data from nsu international program 2004 2005 admission lai et al
Pharmacy Practice(Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al)

COUNTRY CREDITS

  • (USA) NSU 0 (pre-pharmacy) + 28 (Pharm.D) = 28.0
  • Australia 68.0
  • Pakistan 00.0
  • S. Africa 00.0
  • Venezuela 4.0
  • Bolivia 4.0
  • Korea 2.0
  • Japan 6.0
  • Ukraine 0.0
  • Cuba 0.0
  • Thailand 14.0
  • Trinidad 9.0
  • Taiwan 11.0
  • Finland 6.0
  • India 7.6
recommendations to taiwan pharmacy curriculum1
Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum
  • Increase the academic credits of :
    • Disease Management/Rational drug use
      • Physical assessment
      • Disease management by Modules
        • Diabetes, Infectious disease, GI, Psychology,etc.
      • Therapeutics/pathophysiology
      • Nonprescription therapies
      • Patient care management (integrated)
professional experience
Professional Experience
  • Experiential Education
  • General Clinical Clerkship
  • Advanced Clinical Clerkship
  • Advanced Elective Clerkship
  • Thesis
professional experience data from nsu international program 2004 2005 admission lai et al
Professional Experience (Data from NSU-international program 2004,2005 admission, Lai, et.al)

COUNTRY CREDITS

  • (USA) NSU 0 (pre-pharmacy) + 40 (Pharm.D) = 40.0
  • Australia 0.0
  • Pakistan 0.0
  • S. Africa 0.0
  • Venezuela 4.0
  • Bolivia 4.0
  • Korea 2.0
  • Japan 0.0
  • Ukraine 0.0
  • Cuba 0.0
  • Thailand 3.0
  • Trinidad 0.0
  • Taiwan ?? 9.0
  • Finland 8.5
  • India 5.0
recommendations to taiwan pharmacy curriculum2
Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum
  • Increase the academic credits of :
    • Professional experiences (clerkship)
      • Advanced practice
        • Hospital
        • General practice
        • Internal medicine
        • Ambulatory care
        • Drug information
      • Advanced practice electives
        • GI, Nuclear, oncology, pediatric, psychiatric, nutrition, industry, compounding, etc.
recommendations to taiwan pharmacy curriculum3
Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum
  • Increase the academic credits of :
    • Service Learning
      • Early practice experience
      • Flexibility of curriculum
      • Public awareness
      • Public/Self recognition as primary care provider
      • Professional association participation
      • International affair involvement
      • Professional maturity
others electives
Others/Electives
  • Calculus
  • Taiwanese history
  • Physical education
  • Military training
  • Art & artists
  • Public speaking
  • Soviet Law
  • Life of Christ
others electives data from nsu international program 2005 admission lai et al
Others/Electives(Data from NSU-international program 2005 admission, Lai, et.al)

COUNTRY CREDITS

  • (USA) NSU 0 (pre-pharmacy) + 10 (Pharm.D) = 10.0
  • Australia 0.0
  • Pakistan 12.0
  • S. Africa 18.0
  • Venezuela 4.0
  • Bolivia 70.0
  • Korea 42.0
  • Japan 12.0
  • Ukraine 59.5
  • Cuba 51.0
  • Thailand 15.0
  • Trinidad 39.5
  • Taiwan 43.5
  • Finland 38.5
  • India 4.5
recommendations to taiwan pharmacy curriculum4
Recommendations to Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum
  • Decrease the academic credits of:
    • Non-pharmacy related courses
academic credits comparison
Academic Credits Comparison

Taiwan US

  • Biomedical Science 37 41
  • Pharmaceutical Science 38 29
  • Behav.,social, adminis. 6 22
  • Pharmacy practice/Therap. 11 28
  • Professional exp/Clerkship 9 40
  • Others/electives 44 40
curriculum problems in general
Curriculum Problems (in General)
  • Deficiencies in content
  • Duplicative teaching
  • Lack of student-directed and independent learning
  • Quality assurance of Clinical rotation
  • Flexibility and Condemnatory
  • Faculty, Students, Practitioners involvement
barriers of changing curriculum
Barriers of Changing Curriculum
  • Public Awareness
    • Pharmacists as part of healthcare team
    • Ethics, regulations, and standard of pharmacy
  • Resource sufficiency
    • Budget
    • Faculty
    • Physical, including facilities and experiential sites
  • Impact on other school programs and current practitioners and students
discussion changing taiwan pharmacy curriculum
Discussion: Changing Taiwan Pharmacy Curriculum
  • Time Frame:
    • 4 years, 5 years, or 6 years ???
  • Degree:
    • BS, M-Pham, Pharm.D. ???
  • Licensure:

General practice – “Clinical Patient Care is the must”

Specialty

      • Advanced clinical practice
      • Industrial
      • Business administrative
ending
Ending

Changes creates opportunities…..

as well as problems….

ThinkingGlobally….

ActingLocally

thank you

Thank You

Leanne Lai, Ph.D.

Director of International Program

3200 S. University drive

Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 33328

leanne@hpd.nova.edu

mission of pharmacy education
Mission ofPharmacy Education
  • Inculcate students with the value necessary to serve society as caring, ethical, learning professionals
  • Provide students with scientific fundamentals and fosters attitudes to adapt their careers to changes in health care system
  • Enhance scholarships
mission of pharmacy education1
Mission of Pharmacy Education
  • Promote advances in pharmaceutical care by fostering postgraduate residencies and fellowships in clinical sciences and other areas
  • Provides structured postgraduate education and training

(AACP Commission Report)

pharmacy practice2
Pharmacy Practice
  • Traditional practice:
    • Preparing the drug product
    • Providing the drug produce
    • Providing drug information
pharmacy practice3
Pharmacy Practice
  • Contemporary (Rational drug use):
    • Participating in process of drug use decision
    • Selecting the drug product dosage form
    • Selecting drug product source of supply
    • Determining the dose and dosage schedule
    • Monitoring patient compliance
    • Detecting adverse drug reaction and drug interaction

(AACP Commission Report)

practice areas in pharmacy
Practice Areas in Pharmacy
  • Chain Drug Store pharmacists
  • Community pharmacists
  • Compounding pharmacists
  • Academic pharmacists
  • Drug information specialist
  • Hospital staff pharmacist
  • Military pharmacists
  • Public health services pharmacists
practice areas in pharmacy1
Practice Areas in Pharmacy
  • Critical care pharmacists
  • Hospice pharmacists
  • Infectious disease pharmacists
  • Long-term care pharmacists
  • Managed care pharmacists
  • Nuclear pharmacists
  • Nutrition support pharmacists
practice areas in pharmacy2
Practice Areas in Pharmacy
  • Oncology pharmacists
  • Pediatric pharmacists
  • Poison control pharmacists
  • Primary care pharmacists
  • Psychiatric pharmacists
  • Veterinary pharmacists
  • Regulatory pharmacists