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  1. Technology Perspectives in Education Nicholas C. Burbules Computer Associates Lisle Illinois July 11, 2002

  2. Introduction: Distance education vs. Online education The use of new ICT in education is not just a matter of distance education, a term that has become an anachronism. Online education raises a host of new issues about who is in a class; who is teaching the class; and where and when it is meeting as a class.

  3. Part one: Motivations for incorporating new technologies in education

  4. Efficiency motivations • Serving more students with fewer staff • Avoiding travel costs • 24x7x365 learning opportunities (“we never close”)

  5. Access • Curriculum content (virtual high schools) • Postsecondary educational opportunities • In-job training and retraining

  6. Innovation • Teaching in new ways • Promoting autonomous learning • Multimedia • Interactivity • New views of knowledge

  7. Part two: Focus on innovation: How new technologies facilitate more constructivist approaches to learning

  8. What is constructivism? • http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/constructivism.html • http://www.towson.edu/csme/mctp/Essays.html • http://pdts.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/ET-IT/constr.htm • http://www3.sympatico.ca/lgrightmire/CONS.HTM

  9. Shift from teaching orientation to learning orientation Teaching as design John Seely Brown: Growing Up Digital • http://www.aahe.org/change/digital.pdf Brent Wilson: Constructivism and Instructional Design • http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~bwilson/construct.html

  10. Learning as knowledge construction: the active role of the learner Constructivist views of learning Jim Levin and Cynthia Ching (syllabus) • http://w3.ed.uiuc.edu/courses/edpsy490li/sp02/index.html Brent Wilson: Constructivist Learning on the Web • http://ceo.cudenver.edu/~brent_wilson/WebLearning.html

  11. Static vs. dynamic views of knowledge Knowledge is constructed by humans. Knowledge is conjectural and fallible. Knowledge grows through exposure. • http://www.millville.cache.k12.ut.us/Millville/Teachers/Carles/Philosophy/construc.htm

  12. Relevance and authenticity The relationship of content, interest, and motivation. John Dewey • http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/aee501/dewey.html • http://www.socsci.kun.nl/ped/whp/histeduc/misc/dewey01.html • http://disted.tamu.edu/chapter4.htm

  13. Learning styles and states of readiness Individualized instruction • http://www.infotoday.com/MMSchools/nov98/murray.htm • http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/v46/n26/tatJudd.html • http://kellysmusic.mb.ca/why.asp

  14. Group processes: motivation and collaboration Distributed knowledge • http://www.dkrc.org/ • http://www.lis.uiuc.edu/~chip/teach/courses/dk/sp02

  15. Multiple forms of representation (pt 1) Learning styles • http://www.indstate.edu/ctl/styles/learning.html • http://www.cciw.com/content/learning_styles.html • http://catalyst.washington.edu/method/learning_styles.html • http://www.oswego.edu/~shindler/lstyle.htm • http://www.support4learning.org.uk/education/lstyles.htm

  16. Multiple forms of representation (pt 2) Multiple intelligences • http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm • http://surfaquarium.com/im.htm • http://www.cio.com/archive/031596_qa.html • http://www.pz.harvard.edu/Research/MISchool.htm

  17. Metacognition and reflection: learning how to learn Metacognition • http://snow.utoronto.ca/Learn2/mod2/ • http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/fas/shuell/cep564/Metacog.htm • http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1metn.htm • http://www.psyc.memphis.edu/trg/meta.htm

  18. Typology of learning technologies Bruce and Levin, 1997 http://www.lis.uiuc.edu/%7Echip/pubs/taxonomy/index.html • Inquiry • Communication • Construction • Expression

  19. Conclusion Rethinking the “virtual” learning space