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PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION. Dr Noushad.P.P. PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION. Module I - Education preliminary considerations Module 2 – Aims of Education Module 3 – Landmarks in the Modern Indian Education Module 4 – Philosophical perspectives on Education. Module –I .

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PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION


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    1. PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION Dr Noushad.P.P

    2. PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION • Module I - Education preliminary considerations • Module 2 – Aims of Education • Module 3 – Landmarks in the Modern Indian Education • Module 4 – Philosophical perspectives on Education

    3. Module –I Education – Preliminary Considerations

    4. Defining Education • Considerable amount of Confusion • Different Perspectives • Objective - educationalists • Subjective – layman • Why Different Definitions • Complex nature of human personality • Changing Environment • Different Philosophies of Life • Different Educational theories and Practice

    5. Meaning of Education • Etymological • Educare = To bring up. • Educere = To lead out. • Educatum = Act of teaching. • Educo = To lead forth. • Broad Meaning • Life/ womb to tomb • Narrow Meaning • Schooling/instruction • Common meaning • Tripolar – educator, educand and social forces • Synonyms to Education • Pedagogy, Vidya, Jnana

    6. Definitions • By education, I mean an all round drawing out of the best in the child and man, body, mind and spirit – Gandhiji. • Education is the Manifestation of Devine perfection already in man – Vivekananda. • Education is the creation of sound mind in a sound body – Aristotle • Education is the natural, harmonious and progressive development of man’s innate powers – Pestalozzi. • Education is the process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experiences – John Dewey.

    7. Classification of Definitions • Spiritual • Education is to realize the divinity in the Individual • Developmental • Development of the individual – Biological definitions • Social • Training of Individual to participate in society • Operational • Situation specific

    8. Functions of Education • Towards individual • Development of Natural abilities • Integrated growth • Character building • Direction • Preparation for adult life • Control of Instinct • Synthesize knowledge • Adjustment

    9. Towards Society • Socialization • Familiarize Social processes • Conservation • Reconstruction • National development • Encourage social welfare

    10. Meaning - Functions - Aims • Meaning – what education is? • Function – what education does? • Aims – what education should do?

    11. Nature of education as a discipline • Dispute among academics • A discipline is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at university level • Its own methodology • Co-evolved with professions

    12. Why education is a discipline? • Well defined functions • Scope is defined • A discipline at university level • Sub disciplines • Co-evolved with a profession

    13. Characteristics of education • Education is purposive • Drawing out or bringing up process • Knowledge as well as experience • For the good of the individual and the welfare of the society • Liberal and vocational • Stabilizer, conservator and reconstruction • Education is deliberate • Education is planned • Education is life long • Education is influence exerted • Education is bipolar and tripolar • Education is psychological and social • Education is growth

    14. Origin and Development of the discipline • Emerged only in the 19th Century • Rousseau • Progressivism • Dewey • CTC • Teacher education colleges and Departments

    15. Development of the Discipline education in India • 1917 – Dept. of Education in University of Calcutta • 1936 – Bombay University started M.Ed Course • 1943 – first Ph.D in education from Bombay University • 1946 –CIE • 1961 – NCERT • A number of Institutions

    16. Educational theory • Something that guides, explains or describes educational practice • Normative theories • Prescriptive • Provides goals, norms and standards • What education ought to be • Philosophical theories and curriculum theories

    17. Descriptive Theories of Education • Provides descriptions about how the goals suggested by normative theories can be achieved • Curriculum theories • Instructional theory • Learning theory • Socio-cultural theory

    18. Educational Practice • Policy making • Theories guide to formulate policies • Constructivism and NCF (2005) • Eclectism • Integration of different approaches • To perform as a useful member • Practical principles

    19. Interdisciplinary Nature of Education • Efforts to make education a science • No solid success • Education experienced a crisis • Now it is more good than harm • Transform form ‘colony’ to ‘empire’ • Relationship with • Philosophy • Sociology • Psychology • Economics • History • Politics • anthropology

    20. Scope of Education • Levels of Education • Pre primary Education • Primary Education • Secondary education • Higher education • Special education • Adult education

    21. Aspects of education • Aims of education • Individual and social • Curriculum • Science, humanities, social sciences etc. • Methods • Lecture, question answer, project • Teacher • Roles, qualities etc • Discipline • Impressionistic, reppressionistic, emancipatory

    22. Types of Education • FORMAL • Systematic Education from schools and colleges • INFORMAL • Education from Home, neighbourhood, Church and society • NON FORMAL • Systematic Education outside the frame work of Formal educational institutions

    23. Considerations in education • Philosophical • Socio cultural • Psychological • Economical • Political • Historical

    24. Philosophical factors • Aim of education related to aim of life • Aim of life is determined by philosophy • Content is determined by values of life • Political philosophy determines the discipline of a country • Ideologies provide background for education • Indian philosophy gives a theoretical frame work for every aspects of education

    25. Socio-cultural factors • Educational system is different in different societies • Educational system is closely inter related with other sub systems of the society • Cultural pattern of a country determines its educational pattern • Materialist society aims material values • Indian tradition reflects in Indian education

    26. Psychological Factors • Child is the centre • Consider needs, interests, attitudes and other psychological factors • Principles of curriculum construction • Effectiveness of teaching methods • Teachers role • Classroom discipline

    27. Module II Aims of Education

    28. Aims of Education • Acquisition of knowledge • Self preservation • Harmonious development • Complete living • Humanization • Highest degree of individual excellence • Social efficiency • Vocational efficiency

    29. Individual & Social Aims • Rousseau, Spencer, Percy Nunn etc emphasized Individual Aims • They advocated the development of innate potentialities • Dewey emphasized social aims • A process of socialization • Individual for society and society for individual – a reconciliation of individual and social aims

    30. Aims of Education in Ancient India • Purusharthas • A value which an individual seeks for the realization of a desire • Dharma – righteousness – moral value • Artha – wealth or material things • Kama – enjoyment of physical and psychological pleasure • Moksha – absence of all pains –Liberation or salvation

    31. Constitutional Goals • Democracy – the representatives of the people governs the country • Socialism – a society based on equality • State ownership • Social equality • Economic equality • Equality of opportunity

    32. Secularism • Treats all religions equally • Indian and western concepts are different • Equality of Opportunity • Provision of equal chances to all according to the tastes, interests and abilities of students without any discrimination based on gender, caste, class, creed, religion etc.

    33. Preparing for the duties and rights of the Indian citizens • Preamble of Indian constitution • We the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India in to a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic and to secure all its citizen….

    34. Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizen • Right to equality • Right to freedom • Right against exploitation • Right to freedom of religion • Cultural and educational rights • Right to constitutional remedies

    35. Fundamental duties of Indian Citizens • In Article 51A of the Indian Constitution. • Respect the National Flag and the National Anthem  • To defend the country and render national service • To develop the scientific temper and spirit of inquiry • To follow the ideals of national struggle for freedom  • To promote harmony and common brotherhood • To strive towards excellence in all spheres • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence  • To protect and improve the natural environment • To provide education to children between 6-14 age

    36. Articles pertaining to Education • Article 28 – religious education • Article 29 – protection of minorities • Article 30 – minorities rights to establish educational institutions • Article 45 – ECCE • Article 46 – SC ST and weaker sections • Article 337 – provisions for Anglo Indians • Article 350 a – instruction in mother tongue • Article 21a – Education as fundamental right • Article 51a – Duty of the parents

    37. Education for National Integration • Feeling that binds the citizens of a country • Obstacles before national integration • Historical background • Different religion • Different castes • Linguistic status • Different parties • Lack of good leadership • Cultural differences • Favourism in public service • Corruption

    38. Education for national integration • Recommendations of Sampoornananda committee 1961 • Reorientation of curriculum • Importance to co-curricular activities • Reorient text books • Singing of national anthem • Reverence for national flag • special talks • taking pledge • open-air dramas • exchange and tour programmes • hand books for teachers • education and travel documentation

    39. International understanding • Feeling that a person is not only the citizen of a country but also a citizen of the world. • obstacles • physical barriers • economic barriers • political barriers • religious barriers • linguistic barriers • psychological barriers • educational barriers

    40. Fostering International Understanding • Curricular Programme • world history • world geography • scientifically technical education • arts, psychology, philosophy • study of other lands • international organizations

    41. Co-curricular Activities • Cultural conferences • Visit places of calamity • Pen and e friendships • Celebration of international days • Student exchange • Coin, stamp, scrap collections

    42. Education for a Knowledge Society • What is a knowledge society • A society which integrate all its members and promote new forms of solidarity involving both present and future generations • Emphasis on role of knowledge • Human development and empowerment • Link between knowledge and development

    43. Principles of a knowledge society • Freedom of expression • Access to quality education • Respect for cultural and linguistic diversities • Universal access to information and knowledge

    44. The four Pillars of Education • UNESCO Report in 1996 • ‘Learning the treasure within’ • Delor's Report • Learning to know • Learning to do • Learning to be • Learning to live together

    45. The Millennium Development Goals • Eradicating poverty • Universal primary education • Gender equality • Reducing child mortality • Improving maternal health • Protection against diseases • Environmental sustainability • Global partnership for development

    46. Module III Landmarks in the Modern Indian Education

    47. Education during British period • Charter act – 1813 • Charter act – 1833 • Macaulay's minutes – 1835 • Wood’s despatch – 1854 • Hunter commission – 1882 • University commission – 1902 • Calcutta university commission – 1917 • Hartog committee – 1929 • Abbot wood report – 1937 • Sargent report – 1944

    48. Macaulay's Minutes • Macaulay was the law member of governor generals council • Chairman of the society of public instruction • His observations • English is the key to modern language • English is eminent among western languages • English is the language of ruling class • English will help to bring renaissance • Natives desirous of learning English • Important to education of higher classes • Downward filtration theory

    49. Charles Wood’s Despatch • President of companies board of control • His recommendations • Office of DPI to be set up • Spread of public education • Grand in aid to schools • Technical training institutions • Women education • Encourage oriental aspects • Universities and professional institutions • Magna carta of Indian education

    50. Merits of British education • Touch of western knowledge • New means of spread of education • Scientific development • Development of Indian art • Inspired culture and literary consciousness • Social and political awareness • Establishment of new social and political institutions • Growth of National feeling