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Mechanical Designs and Motors. Arena. Aspects of Robotics. Actuators. An  actuator  is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a source of energy. Types of actuators: Electric motors DC motor, Servos, Stepper, Encoder Pneumatics

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actuators
Actuators

An actuator is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a source of energy.

Types of actuators:

  • Electric motors
    • DC motor,
    • Servos,
    • Stepper,
    • Encoder
  • Pneumatics
  • Hydraulics
dc motors
DC Motors
  • These are simple motors used for simple purpose.
  • Speed can be reduced by reducing the voltage supplied, however that’s not an efficient way of doing things.
  • Torque and speed are inversely proportional. Generally a 100rpm – 300rpm motor is used as the wheels of a robot .
  • Never apply voltage more than applied voltage.
  • Rated voltage is generally 6V, 12V or 24 V
mechanisms
Mechanisms

Rigid bodies connected by joints in order to accomplish a desired force and/or motion transmission constitute a mechanism.

  • Gripping mechanism,
    • Hands of a robot is referred to gripper.
  • Lifting mechanism
    • Will be used to lift the gripper.
motion transfer mechanisms
Motion Transfer mechanisms
  • Rotation to linear motion
    • Rack and pinion
    • Power screw
    • Conveyer belt
  • Rotation to rotation motion
    • Gears(spur, bevel, worm etc.)
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Power screw

Rack and pinion

Conveyer belt

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Spur gear

Bevel gear

Worm gear

types of grippers
Types of Grippers
  • 4-Bar mechanism:
    • Ends stay Parallel.
    • Good
    • Universal
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Roller gripper:

    • Slow,
    • Simple,
    • Misalignment problem
power screw gripper
Power screw gripper
  • Slow
  • Self Locking.
lifting mechanisms
Lifting mechanisms
  • Pulleys
  • Sliders
  • 4-Bar linkage mechanism
  • Scissor mechanism
sliders
Sliders
  • They move linear
  • Combine pulley and sliders for lifting
4 bar linkage
4-Bar linkage
  • Parallelogram mechanism.
  • Object moves parallel.
wheels
Wheels

Wheels for

plastic shaft motor

Omni wheel

ATV wheel

Mecannum wheel