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Laser micromachining / microfabrication By: Divya Bandi. Overview. Interaction of lasers with materials Continued….

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Laser micromachining / microfabrication

By: Divya Bandi


Interaction of lasers

with materials Continued…

  • There should be a well precision and good handling mechanisms in manufacturing micro devices with these methods as some of the materials used for manufacturing are sensitive
  • Laser Drilling and applications:
  • It is one of the earliest method in material processing & it is 1-dimensional.
  • It is most extensively used in aerospace, aircraft and automotive industries.
  • It is a noncontact, precise and reproducible technique.
  • Laser Cutting and applications:
  • It is a two-dimensional machining process.
  • It is a high speed, repeatable and reliable method.
  • It is particularly suited fully or semi-automated cutting process.
  • It is used to cut steels, super alloys, aluminum, copper etc.
  • Three Dimensional Laser Machining and applications:
  • Laser Assisted Machining(LAM) & Laser Machining(LM) are the two types in this method.
  • LAM is specially developed for difficult-to materials like ceramics & hard metals.
  • LM can be used using either one single laser beam or two intersecting laser beams to machining the hard materials like Si3N4,SiC, SiAlON & Al2O3.
  • Oxford Lasers, Resonetics, Laser Micromachining LTD, etc. are the Laser Micromachining companies.
  • Laser Micromachining LTD is one of the major leading company in the manufacturing of micro devices.
  • This company provides devices to many sectors like Biotechnology, Energy, Solar, Telecommunications, Microelectronics, Medical, Precision engineering etc.

Example Figures showing

Laser micromachining

  • Introduction
  • Interaction of lasers with materials
  • Manufacturing process
  • Laser Drilling, Laser Cutting, Laser Machining and Applications
  • Industrial Perspective
  • Example figures showing Laser Micromachining
  • References
  • The manufacturing of micro devices was made easy with the introduction of Ruby Laser in 1960.
  • Four types of lasers exists based on the material to be made.
  • They are: Solid-state lasers, Gas lasers, Semiconductor lasers & Dye lasers.
  • Wavelength ranging from Ultraviolet to Infrared makes us to use variety of lasers based on the material to be manufactured.
  • Accuracy and precision in making micro devices with laser has lead to the advancement of laser technology.
  • Reflection, Refraction, Absorption, Scattering & Transmission phenomena occur when laser radiation interacts with the material.
  • But absorption of radiation is the important and desired phenomena among all.
  • Heating, melting, vaporization, Plasma formation etc occurs when radiation is absorbed by the material.
  • The processing of these phenomena depends on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics and thermo-physical properties of the material.
  • Intensity, wavelength, polarization, angle of incidence, etc are the parameters of the laser.
  • The high frequency laser radiation hits the electrons of the materials and set them into motion with the force,
  • F = eE + e((v/c)*H).
  • v = velocity of electron, c = speed of light,
  • e = electronic charge,
  • E = Electric field strength, H = Magnetic field strength.
  • Due to the rapid motion of electrons, the material becomes hot and melted so that we can mold it according to our desired design.
  • There are three basic processing steps in manufacturing any micro device using laser technology.
  • Primary and Secondary manufacturing processes: Casting, Forging, Rolling, Extrusion etc. are primary manufacturing processes. Whereas various machining and forming processes are secondary manufacturing processes.
  • Hot working and Cold working processes:Hot working process is the manufacturing process which is carried out at the temperature above the recrystallization temperature. Whereas below the recrystallization temperature are referred as Cold working processes.
  • Metal forming and Metal removal processes: Rolling, Forging and Bending are referred as Metal forming processes whereas various machining processes referred as Metal removal processes to bring out the desired shape from the material.
  • Apart from these, Laser drilling, Laser Cutting and Laser Machining are considered as the three important process to be involved in manufacturing any kind of desired micro device.


Fig – 1. Gaskets cut from silicon.



Interaction of Lasers with Materials

Fig – 2. Micro Needles..


  • Dahotre, N. B., & Harimkar, S. P. (2008). Laser fabrication and machining of materials. New York, N.Y.: Springer Science+Business Media.
  • [Fig -1]
  • [Fig -2]

Industrial Perspective