LASER Land Leveling in Rice Farming. Julian F. Cacho BAE 4213 April 28, 2004. Overview. LASER LASER Leveling System How LASER Leveling Works Benefits of LASER Land Leveling in Rice Farming Limitations of LASER Land Leveling Possible ways to overcome the limitations.
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LASER Land Leveling in Rice Farming Julian F. Cacho BAE 4213 April 28, 2004
Overview • LASER • LASER Leveling System • How LASER Leveling Works • Benefits of LASER Land Leveling in Rice Farming • Limitations of LASER Land Leveling • Possible ways to overcome the limitations
LASER Defined: • Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation • Light of special properties • Lasers amplify light Radiation coverage at wavelengths ranging from IR to UV and even Soft X-ray range (XUV) • XUV (10 nm – 30 nm) (www.columbia.edu/cu/mechanical/mrl/ntm/Glossary.html)
LASER Leveling System • Laser Transmitter • Laser Receiver • Electrical Control Panel • Twin Solenoid Hydraulic Control Valve
LASER Transmitter - Sends the LASER beam rapidly in a circular manner
LASER Receiver (Omni-directional) - Intercepts the LASER beam
Electrical Control Panel - Accepts andInterprets the signal from the LASER receiver
Twin Solenoid Hydraulic Control Valve - Raises or lowers the bucket
Benefits of Precise Land Leveling • Increases Yield • Reduces Weed Problems by even water distribution • Increases Opportunity to Use Direct Seeding • Increases Water Use Efficiency • Other benefits
Yield Increase Table 1. Results of Land leveling experiments conducted by CIAP in Cambodia, 1996-1999 Year Rice Yield (t/ha) Leveled Fields Unleveled Fields 1996 3.40 2.67 1997 2.27 1.46 1998 2.72 2.36 1999 (CARDI) 2.34 2.00 Average 2.72 2.19 Average Increase = 24% or 530 kg/ha
Reduces Weed Problems by Even Water Distribution • Improved water coverage - reduces the weed by up to 40% (Rickman, 2002) • Reduction of time for crop weeding (Rickman, 2002) - from 21 to 5 labor days/hectare - 75% decrease in labor required for weeding
Increases the Opportunity to Use Direct Seeding - Direct seeding reduces labor by approximately 30 person-days/hectare
Increased Water Use Efficiency • Reduction in time and water required to irrigate the field - 25 to 50 % less water to flood the field (Coblentz, 2000)
Other Benefits • Highly Accessible and Inexpensive Input Data - topographic map -internet, local agricultural offices • Re-leveling takes 5 to 10 years (Rickman, 2002)
Limitations of LASER Land Leveling • High Cost of the equipment/LASER instrument • Need for Skilled operator to set/adjust laser settings and operate the tractor • More efficient for regularly sized and shape field
Possible Ways to Overcome the Limitations in the Third World Countries • Government Intervention - precision land leveling services on a subsidized rental basis - The Government of Punjab, India charges services by Rs. 150/hr = $3.4/hr = Php187.5/hr • Intervention of Farmers’ Cooperatives and Other Farmers’ Associations
References: • http://msucares.com/news/print/agnews/an00/000742tw.htm • http://www.ricefarming.com/home/archive/precleveling.html • http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/laserLeveling/How_it_works.htm • http://www.punjab.gov.pk/agriculture/water_management/agriculture_water_management • http://agronomy.ucdavis.edu/uccerice/water/wtrmg03.htm • http://www.agriculture.com/sfonline/sf/2003/october/0310precision_rice.html • http://www.columbia.edu/cu/mechanical/mrl/ntm/Glossary.html • Rickman, J. F., 2002. Manual for laser land leveling, Rice-Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin Series 5. New Delhi-110 012, India: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, pp. 24. • Dr. Marvin Stone, Dr. John Solie, and Dr. Bill Raun
Oopps!......... ……. No LASER Precise Answers ……. For Difficult Questions!