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Cultural and Heritage Tourism. Raymond A. Rosenfeld, Ph.D. Professor of Political Science Eastern Michigan University USA.

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Cultural and heritage tourism

Cultural and Heritage Tourism

Raymond A. Rosenfeld, Ph.D.

Professor of Political Science

Eastern Michigan University


Presented at the International Conference onMunicipal Economic Development ToolkitMarch 3-4, 2008Kyiv, UkrainePushcha OzernaSponsored by:USAID Local Economic Development ProjedtKyiv School of EconomicsKyiv Economics InstituteMichigan State University

The challenge
The Challenge

  • Attract new visitors

  • Encourage visitors to extend their stay

  • Add-on to professional and business meetings

  • Attract adult and family tourist visits

What is cultural and heritage tourism
What is Cultural and Heritage Tourism?

  • Focus on historical, artistic, scientific, and lifestyle/heritage

  • Experience cultural environments, visual and performing arts, lifestyle, values, traditions and events

  • Festivals, banquets, music, theater, village and rural life, gastronomy, visiting/tasting local products, village buildings and “atmosphere”, historic and religious monuments and ruins, famous people

Benefits to the community
Benefits to the Community

  • Economic vitality (12% of European GDP and expected to double in 20 years)

  • Leverage human capital (20 million European jobs)

  • Restore, revitalize a geographical area

  • Expand business and tax revenue

  • Create an innovative habitat – to attract knowledge-based employees

  • Create a sense of pride and belonging by residents

Who are these tourists
Who are these tourists?

  • Example of German tourists

  • Age 45-64, above average income, mostly couples, better educated, broadly traveled, quality conscious, holiday regularly and outside normal peak seasons

  • Travel independently and stay 7 days or less

  • Expect small accommodations (2 and 3 star), run by locals

  • Prefer local cuisine with local ingredients


  • Demand for high standards

  • Safeguard local identity while meeting tourist quality and standards expectations

  • Authenticity

    • Rebuild or protect?

    • Church or museum?

Supporting organizations
Supporting Organizations

  • United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

  • European Commission

  • European Regional Development Fund

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

  • World Travel and Tourism Council

  • Organization of World Heritage Cities

Place promotion
Place Promotion

  • Focus on a historic town known for an historic event, common heritage, historic building and/or special event (Mazepa and the 1709 Battle of Poltava; Catherine the Great in Sevastopol; Crimea and Yalta)

  • Attract tourists from the common heritage and others (example: Gambia West Africa’s “Home Coming Festival”; Odessa and Jewish Life; Ukrainian Diaspora)

  • UNESCO World Heritage sites (Pechersk Lavra, Lviv’s Old Town, Saint Sophia, Struve Geodetic Arc in Staro Nekrasovka)

  • Hard Branding around a star building (example: Gehry’s Guggenheim in Balboa)

Cultural districts
Cultural Districts

  • Physical space with concentrated tourist sites(art markets, performing arts, museums, cultural heritage)

  • Small and medium sized firms(restaurants, gift/craft shops

  • Industrial Cultural District (arts and crafts)

  • Institutional Cultural District(exclusive naming rights such as Tuscany-Chianti)

  • Museum Cultural District – in a historic downtown with museums, hotels, shops, restaurants (zoning, new construction)

  • Metropolitan Cultural District – where artists live and work, along with supporting institutions

Legacy tourism
Legacy Tourism

  • Connections to history, art, science, lifestyles, architecture and scenery

  • Genealogical interests, connections (Ukrainians in the West, Russians, Jews, Poles)

Cultural and heritage routes
Cultural and Heritage Routes

  • Council of Europe's Institute of Cultural Routes – themed routes (Viking Routes, European Jewish Heritage Routes)

  • Kyiv Rus

Practical guidelines
Practical Guidelines

  • Strategic Planning – leadership, SWOT analysis

  • Cultural and Heritage Tourism Products

  • Support Services

  • Public Works

  • Education and Training

  • Marketing

  • Planning Management and Assessment

  • Public Policy Actions

Product enhancement
Product Enhancement

  • Determine distinctiveness

  • Emphasize quality

  • Physical clustering

  • Enhance and renovate

  • Special events and festivals

  • Develop small and medium sized hotels, lodges, restaurants, handicraft businesses

  • Accessibility

  • Multi-lingual signage and programs

Support services quality
Support Services & Quality

  • Enhance mediating services (tourism offices, Internet)

  • Inter-city transportation (bus, rail, auto/roads, Greenways)

  • Intra-city transportation

  • Support restaurants, hotels, shops

  • Hours of operation

Public works
Public Works

  • Airport, rail and bus service and facilities

  • Water and sewer

  • Public plazas and parks

  • Signage

  • Accessibility

Education and training
Education and Training

  • Education and training of local population in service quality and customer service

  • Education and training in cultural areas

  • Special training for owners of monuments, museums and businesses

  • Build community support and involvement

  • Special training for older people in delivery of services

  • Assist in grant applications for outside support


  • Brand, market and promote the city, its sites, events, tourism services

  • Package arrangements

  • Work with private tour companies

  • Profitable and competitive pricing policy

  • Electronic media

  • Print media (include commissioned books)

  • Elite and government official involvement

  • Video documentary

  • Support cultural programs abroad

  • Target professional associations and meetings

  • Market internationally

  • Multi-lingual information

Planning management evaluation
Planning, Management, Evaluation

  • Designate a lead individual and organization

  • Identify key individuals and organizations

  • Assess all resources

  • Market research

  • Tourism master plan

  • Create strategic partnerships

  • Negotiate a variety of packaging arrangements

  • Conduct impact assessments

  • Sister city relations

  • Advance plan all special events two years out

Public policy
Public Policy

  • Food and drink quality regulations

  • Investment policy

  • Fund public works

  • Financial instruments and tax policies

  • Laws to protect cultural heritage sites

  • Rules for sustainable development

  • Apply for grants and loans

  • Design rules for new construction to harmonize