E-Cultural Heritage, e-Tourism, and the Arab World Jessie Pallud (Université Strasbourg)Emmanuel Monod (Université Paris) Detmar Straub (Georgia State University)
Agenda • Definition and overview of e-Cultural Heritage • Differencesbetween e-Tourism, e-High Culture, etc. • Technologies and information systemsneeded to enact e-Cultural Heritage • Two applications • Focus on museums • Scientificevidence for value of e-Cultural Heritage in museums • Possible applications to Kuwait & the Arab world • Concludingthoughts
Definition: Tourism • Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. Source: “UNWTO Technical Manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics,” World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 14. http://pub.unwto.org/WebRoot/Store/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1034/1034-1.pdf.
Definition: Tourists • Tourists are people who: • Travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than 24 hours, • Stay not more than one consecutive year, • And are not paid for doing this. Source: “UNWTO Technical Manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics,” World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 14. http://pub.unwto.org/WebRoot/Store/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1034/1034-1.pdf.
Inclusive Enough? • Are these definitions inclusive enough?
E-Cultural Heritage Cultural Heritage is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions and values. Thus, it is often expressed as either intangible or tangible Cultural Heritage. Source: ICOMOS, ICTC, 2002, www.culture-routes.lu/picture/glossaire_list.php3 The Picture Project: Pro-active Management of the Impact of Cultural Tourism on Urban Resources and Economies
Definitions: High & Low Culture • High cultureis the set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture. • Culture of an elite such as the aristocracy or intelligentsia Michaelangelo, Sistine Chapel in Rome • Low culture or popular culture (folk culture) of the less well-educated, barbarians, philistines or the masses. Source: Gaye Tuchman and Nina E. Fortin, Edging Women Out: Victorian Novelists, Publishers and Social Change. London, 1989.
Relationships: Tourism, Culture, Cultural Heritage • Note: GPS=Global Positioning Satellite device Tourism Cultural Heritage Sports, etc. e-Tourism High/low Culture e-Cultural Heritage GPS, etc. Websites Physical Sites Hyperlinks, dual purpose sites Websites, etc.
Widespread Information on e-Culture, e-Tourism Source: DigiCult report (2002) http://www.digicult.info/pages/report.php
e-Tourism Networks Regnet
Technologies and information systemsneeded to enact e-Cultural Heritage
e-Cultural Heritage Technologies • Websites for inspiring visits and selling pseudo-artifacts • Digital display units with audio-visual aids to enhance the museum/cultural site experience; GPS locators • Kiosks for information queries; interactive dioramas • Virtual Reality (VR) for re-creating historical environments and artifacts-in-use • Digital cultural repositories of three-dimensional images of artifacts, locations, scholarly analyses, relationships to other cultural artifacts, biographies of creators, histories of ownership, etc.
Digital (virtual) museumrepository(2 dimensional) Source: Extension of Regnet, http://www.europeanvirtualmuseum.it/virtuale.htm
The future?...Virtual cultural heritage(Second Life VR model) Rome’s Via Flaminia Source: http://www.vhlab.itabc.cnr.it/flaminia/index02.html
The future?...Virtual cultural heritage(3 dimensional) Breath-taking 3D computer graphics can be applied to high cultural settings as well as “pop” cultural settings! James Cameron’s film, “Avatar” (released December, 2009)
Two Applications (1st) Olympia, Greece The Olympic Games
Archeoguide in Olympia, Greece Vlahakis et al. (2002)
Two Applications (2nd) ROME VIRTUAL HERITAGE CENTER
Museums e-Cultural Heritage Traditional
Problems with traditional museums Museums tend to focus more on education than on entertainment (Fopp, 1997). Museums are often perceived by children as just another type of school, and visitors do not hesitate to characterize them as boring (Csikzentmihalyi & Hermanson, 1995).
Importance of Study • Cultural tourism: 118 million American adults experience an artistic activity while traveling (NASAA 2004). • Increased interest in authenticity • Escape from modern life (MacCannell 1973) • Meet locals and live like them (Cohen 1988) • See genuine things (Bruner 1994) • Being reluctant to interact with virtual copies (Amirou 2000) • Cultural places increasingly rely on IT.
Research Questions • What are the emotional and intellectual reactions of museum visitors when interacting with museum technologies? • Do visitors have an authentic experience? • Do they feel enjoyment and immersion (complete absorption) when using museum technologies? • Does the use of museum technologies increase learning?
Authentic (real, true) feelings • Authenticity was introduced into tourism research by MacCannell (1973; 1976). • Life in modern society is inauthentic and alienated. • People travel and visit new settings to discover new places that will be more authentic and natural. • However, touristic places provide a staged authenticity. • Will information technologies enhance or detract from the feeling of authenticity?
Methodology • Experiment (Free simulation experiment; Fromkin and Streufert 1976) • Setting: a Parisian museum • No manipulation but a stimulation: interaction with the museum technologies (audioguides vs. interactive kiosks/computers) • Data collected: 183 questionnaires
Research Model and Hypotheses Authenticity Disposition All were proven true except for H3. Perceived Enjoyment H7 H2 H8 H4 H1 Perceived Authenticity Perceived Ease-of-Use PIIT Learning H5 H6 H9 PIIT= Perceived Innovativeness with IT H3 Focused Immersion
Contributions • Provides evidence that IT stregthens a feeling of authenticity in e-Cultural Heritage. • Shows that systems can improve the sense of pleasure in leisure time activities. • Indicates that learning can be enhanced through these technologies.
Kuwait -Source: http://www.luciedebelkova.com/Travel/Themes/Waterscapes/6417332_28DTM
Kuwait • Al-Quiran House is the symbol of resistance in the country as this was the site of fighting between the Iraqis and the people of Kuwait in the Gulf War. The museum commemorates all those who lost their lives in this event. The Al Shaab Sea Club has something for every visitor in its more than 7000-m. area. Here you can enjoy just about any activity you can think of and more besides. Visit Bayt Al-Sadu, which helps to preserve the traditional handicrafts of the Bedouin and Kuwaiti peoples. It will give you an education in the traditional ways of wool weaving, which is an integral part of the culture. • Other sites of interest are: • Bayt Al-Badr • BaytLothan • Dhow Harbour • The Liberation Tower • The Musical Fountain • The Red Fort, and • The SaifMarzooq Al-Shamlan Museum