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Trouble brewing? . Trouble brewing? 2 choices…. Trouble brewing? 2 choices…. OR. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Two systems coordinate communication throughout the body: the endocrine system and the nervous system

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slide4

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Two systems coordinate communication throughout the body: the endocrine system and the nervous system

  • The endocrine system secretes hormones that coordinate slower but longer-acting responses including reproduction, development, energy metabolism, growth, and behavior
  • The nervous system conveys high-speed electrical signals along specialized cells called neurons; these signals regulate other cells
slide6

Chapter 45

Hormones and the Endocrine System

slide9

Andre the Giant had acromegaly: HGH secreted in adulthood

To what would hyposecretion of HGH in childhood lead?

methods of intercellular communication by secreted molecules
Methods of intercellular communication by secreted molecules

Bloodvessel

Response

(a) Endocrine signaling

Response

(b) Paracrine signaling – short distances

Response

(c) Autocrine signaling – short distances

Synapse

Neuron

Response

(d) Synaptic signaling

Neurosecretorycell

Bloodvessel

Response

(e) Neuroendocrine signaling

synaptic and neuroendocrine signaling

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Synaptic and Neuroendocrine Signaling
  • In synaptic signaling, neurons form specialized junctions with target cells, called synapses
  • At synapses, neurons secrete molecules called neurotransmitters that diffuse short distances and bind to receptors on target cells
  • In neuroendocrine signaling, specialized neurosecretory cells secrete molecules called neurohormones that travel to target cells via the bloodstream
signaling by pheromones hormones outside the self

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Signaling by Pheromones, hormones outside the self
  • Members of the same animal species sometimes communicate with pheromones, chemicals that are released into the environment
  • Pheromones serve many functions, including marking trails leading to food, defining territories, warning of predators, and attracting potential mates
figure 45 4

Major endocrine glands:

Hypothalamus

Figure 45.4

Pineal gland

Pituitary gland

Organs containingendocrine cells:

Thyroid gland

Thymus

Parathyroid glands(behind thyroid)

Heart

Liver

Adrenal glands(atop kidneys)

Stomach

Kidneys

Pancreas

Smallintestine

Ovaries (female)

Testes (male)

  • Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into surrounding fluid
    • Vs. exocrine glands, which have ducts and which secrete substances onto body surfaces or into cavities
a simple endocrine pathway

Example

Pathway

A simple endocrine pathway

Low pH in duodenum

Stimulus

S cells of duodenumsecrete the hormonesecretin ( ).

Endocrinecell

Hormone

Negative feedback

Bloodvessel

Targetcells

Pancreas

Response

Bicarbonate release

slide15

Example

Pathway

A simple neuroendocrine pathway

Stimulus

Suckling

Sensoryneuron

Hypothalamus/posterior pituitary

Posterior pituitarysecretes theneurohormoneoxytocin ( ).

Neurosecretory cell

Neurohormone

Positive feedback

Blood vessel

Targetcells

Smooth muscle inbreasts

Response

Milk release

3 chemical classes of hormones

Water-soluble (hydrophilic)

Lipid-soluble (hydrophobic)

Polypeptides

Steroids

3 Chemical classes of hormones

0.8 nm

Insulin

Cortisol

Amines

Epinephrine

Thyroxine

receptor location varies with hormone type

SECRETORYCELL

Receptor location varies with hormone type.

Lipid-solublehormone

Water-solublehormone

VIABLOOD

Transportprotein

Signal receptor

TARGETCELL

Signalreceptor

NUCLEUS

(a)

(b)

figure 45 6 2

SECRETORYCELL

Figure 45.6-2

Lipid-solublehormone

Water-solublehormone

VIABLOOD

Transportprotein

Signal receptor

TARGETCELL

OR

Signalreceptor

Cytoplasmicresponse

Generegulation

Cytoplasmicresponse

Generegulation

NUCLEUS

(a)

(b)

slide19

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Animation: Water-Soluble Hormone Right-click slide / select”Play”

figure 45 7 1 epinephrine aka adrenaline has multiple effects
Figure 45.7-1 Epinephrine (aka) adrenaline, has multiple effects

Epinephrine

Adenylylcyclase

G protein

GTP

G protein-coupledreceptor

ATP

Secondmessenger

cAMP

figure 45 7 2
Figure 45.7-2

Epinephrine

Adenylylcyclase

G protein

GTP

G protein-coupledreceptor

ATP

Secondmessenger

cAMP

Proteinkinase A

Inhibition ofglycogen synthesis

Promotion ofglycogen breakdown

slide22

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Animation: Lipid-Soluble HormoneRight-click slide / select”Play”

steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression

EXTRACELLULARFLUID

Hormone(estradiol)

Steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression

Estradiol(estrogen)receptor

Plasmamembrane

Hormone-receptorcomplex

figure 45 8 2

EXTRACELLULARFLUID

Hormone(estradiol)

Figure 45.8-2

Estradiol(estrogen)receptor

Plasmamembrane

Hormone-receptorcomplex

NUCLEUS

CYTOPLASM

DNA

Vitellogenin

mRNAfor vitellogenin

multiple effects of hormones

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Multiple Effects of Hormones
  • The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have for two reasons:
multiple effects of hormones1

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Multiple Effects of Hormones
  • The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have for two reasons:
    • Different receptors for the hormone
    • Different signal transduction pathways
multiple effects of hormones2

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Multiple Effects of Hormones
  • The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have for two reasons:
    • Different receptors for the hormone
    • Different signal transduction pathways

Also……

3. “Love on a bridge study”

one hormone different effects

(b)

Skeletal muscleblood vessel

(c)

Intestinal bloodvessel

Same receptors but differentintracellular proteins (not shown)

Different receptors

One hormone, different effects

Different cellularresponses

Different cellularresponses

Epinephrine

Epinephrine

Epinephrine

 receptor

 receptor

 receptor

Glycogendeposits

Vesseldilates.

Vesselconstricts.

Glycogenbreaks downand glucoseis releasedfrom cell.

(a) Liver cell

regulation of insect development and metamorphosis

Brain

Neurosecretory cells

Regulation of insect development and metamorphosis

Corpora cardiaca

Corpora allata

PTTH

Prothoracicgland

Juvenilehormone (JH)

Ecdysteroid

EARLYLARVA

regulation of insect development requires multiple hormones

Brain

Neurosecretory cells

Regulation of insect development requires multiple hormones

Corpora cardiaca

Corpora allata

PTTH

Prothoracicgland

Juvenilehormone (JH)

Ecdysteroid

EARLYLARVA

LATERLARVA

figure 45 10 3

Brain

Neurosecretory cells

Figure 45.10-3

Corpora cardiaca

Corpora allata

PTTH

Prothoracicgland

Juvenilehormone (JH)

LowJH

Ecdysteroid

EARLYLARVA

LATERLARVA

PUPA

ADULT

maintenance of glucose homeostasis is done by paired hormones insulin and glucagon
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is done by paired hormones, insulin and glucagon

Insulin

Beta cells ofpancreasrelease insulininto the blood.

STIMULUS:Blood glucose level rises (for instance, after eating acarbohydrate-rich meal).

Homeostasis:Blood glucose level(70–110 mg/100 mL)

figure 45 13a 2
Figure 45.13a-2

Insulin

Body cellstake up moreglucose.

Beta cells ofpancreasrelease insulininto the blood.

Liver takesup glucose and stores itas glycogen.

STIMULUS:Blood glucose level rises (for instance, after eating acarbohydrate-rich meal).

Blood glucoselevel declines.

Homeostasis:Blood glucose level(70–110 mg/100 mL)

figure 45 13b 1
Figure 45.13b-1

Homeostasis:Blood glucose level(70–110 mg/100 mL)

STIMULUS:Blood glucose level falls (for instance, afterskipping a meal).

Alpha cells of pancreasrelease glucagon intothe blood.

Glucagon

figure 45 13b 2
Figure 45.13b-2

Homeostasis:Blood glucose level(70–110 mg/100 mL)

STIMULUS:Blood glucose level falls (for instance, afterskipping a meal).

Blood glucoselevel rises.

Alpha cells of pancreasrelease glucagon intothe blood.

Liver breaksdown glycogenand releasesglucose intothe blood.

Glucagon

diabetes mellitus

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes mellitus is perhaps the best-known endocrine disorder
  • It is caused by a deficiency of insulin or a decreased response to insulin in target tissues
  • It is marked by elevated blood glucose levels
slide38

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent) involves insulin deficiency or reduced response of target cells due to change in insulin receptors
45 3 coordination of endocrine and nervous systems in vertebrates

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

45.3 Coordination of Endocrine and Nervous Systems in Vertebrates
  • The hypothalamus receives information from the nervous system and initiates responses through the endocrine system
  • Attached to the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland, composed of the posterior pituitary and anterior pituitary
figure 45 14

Cerebrum

Pinealgland

Figure 45.14

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Cerebellum

Pituitarygland

Spinal cord

  • The posterior pituitary stores and secretes hormones that are made in the hypothalamus
  • The anterior pituitary makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus

Hypothalamus

Posteriorpituitary

Anteriorpituitary

slide41

tropic hormones = target endocrine glands

hypothalamus

thyroid-stimulating

hormone

(TSH)

antidiuretic

hormone

(ADH)

posterior

pituitary

Thyroid gland

anterior

pituitary

Kidney

tubules

adrenocorticotropic

hormone (ACTH)

oxytocin

Muscles

of uterus

gonadotropic

hormones:

follicle-

stimulating

hormone (FSH)

& luteinizing

hormone (LH)

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

(MSH)

growth hormone (GH)

prolactin (PRL)

Adrenal

cortex

Melanocyte

in amphibian

Mammary

glands

in mammals

Bone

and muscle

Ovaries

Testes

thyroid regulation a hormone cascade pathway

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Thyroid Regulation: A Hormone Cascade Pathway
  • A hormone can stimulate the release of a series of other hormones, the last of which activates a nonendocrine target cell; this is called a hormone cascade pathway
  • The release of thyroid hormone results from a hormone cascade pathway involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and thyroid gland
  • Hormone cascade pathways typically involve negative feedback
a hormone cascade pathway

Example

Pathway

Stimulus

Cold

A hormone cascade pathway

Sensory neuron

Hypothalamus secretesthyrotropin-releasinghormone (TRH ).

Hypothalamus

Neurosecretory cell

Releasing hormone

Blood vessel

Anterior pituitary secretesthyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH, also knownas thyrotropin ).

Anterior pituitary

Tropic hormone

Negative feedback

Thyroid gland secretesthyroid hormone(T3 and T4 ).

Endocrine cell

Hormone

Targetcells

Body tissues

Increased cellularmetabolism

Response

evolution of hormone function

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Evolution of Hormone Function
  • Over the course of evolution the function of a given hormone may diverge between species
    • For example, thyroid hormone plays a role in metabolism across many lineages, but in frogs has taken on a unique function: stimulating the resorption of the tadpole tail during metamorphosis
hormones as homologous structures

same gene family

growthhormone

birds

fish

amphibians

fatmetabolism

salt &waterbalance

metamorphosis& maturation

growth& development

Hormones as homologous structures

What does this tell you about these hormones?

How could these hormones have different effects?

prolactin

gene duplication?

mammals

milkproduction

slide48

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) regulates skin color in amphibians, fish, and reptiles by controlling pigment distribution in melanocytes
  • In mammals, MSH plays additional roles in hunger and metabolism in addition to coloration
the roles of parathyroid hormone pth in regulating blood calcium levels in mammals
The roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in regulating blood calcium levels in mammals.

PTH

Parathyroidgland (behindthyroid)

STIMULUS:Falling bloodCa2 level

Homeostasis:Blood Ca2 level(about 10 mg/100 mL)

figure 45 20 2

Activevitamin D

Increases Ca2uptake inintestines

Stimulates Ca2uptake in kidneys

Figure 45.20-2

PTH

Parathyroidgland (behindthyroid)

Stimulates Ca2 releasefrom bones

STIMULUS:Falling bloodCa2 level

Blood Ca2level rises.

Homeostasis:Blood Ca2 level(about 10 mg/100 mL)

slide51

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Multiple hormonal pathways/effects during “fight or flight”

  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • Trigger the release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood
    • Increase oxygen delivery to body cells
    • Direct blood toward heart, brain, and skeletal muscles and away from skin, digestive system, and kidneys
  • The release of epinephrine and norepinephrine occurs in response to involuntary nerve signals
effects of stress on a body
Effects of stress on a body

Stress

Nerve

signals

Hypothalamus

Spinal cord

(cross section)

Releasing

hormone

Nerve

cell

Anterior pituitary

Blood vessel

adrenal medulla

secretes epinephrine

& norepinephrine

Nerve cell

Adrenal cortex

secretes

mineralocorticoids

& glucocorticoids

ACTH

Adrenal

gland

Kidney

CORTEX

MEDULLA

(A) SHORT-TERM STRESS RESPONSE

(B) LONG-TERM STRESS RESPONSE

Effects of

mineralocorticoids:

1. Retention of sodium ions & water by kidneys

2. Increased blood volume & blood pressure

Effects of

glucocorticoids:

1. Proteins & fats broken down & converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose

2. Immune system suppressed

Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine:

1. Glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose

2. Increased blood pressure

3. Increased breathing rate

4. Increased metabolic rate

5. Change in blood flow patterns, leading to increased alertness & decreased digestive & kidney activity

figure 45 21

(b)

Long-term stress responseand the adrenal cortex

(a)

Short-term stress responseand the adrenal medulla

Figure 45.21

Stress

Hypothalamus

Nervesignals

Spinal cord(cross section)

Releasinghormone

Nervecell

Anterior pituitary

Blood vessel

ACTH

Nerve cell

Adrenal medullasecretes epinephrineand norepinephrine.

Adrenal cortexsecretes mineralo-corticoids andglucocorticoids.

Adrenalgland

Kidney

Effects of mineralocorticoids:

Effects of glucocorticoids:

Effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine:

  • Glycogen broken down to glucose;
  • increased blood glucose

•Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose

•Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys

  • Increased blood pressure
  • Increased breathing rate
  • Increased metabolic rate

•Increased blood volume and blood pressure

•Partial suppression of immune system

  • Change in blood flow patterns, leading toincreased alertness and decreased digestive,excretory, and reproductive system activity
slide54

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, influence glucose metabolism and the immune system
  • Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, affect salt and water balance
  • The adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of steroid hormones that function as sex hormones
gonadal sex hormones

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gonadal Sex Hormones
  • The gonads, testes and ovaries, produce most of the sex hormones: androgens, estrogens, and progestins
  • All three sex hormones are found in both males and females, but in significantly different proportions
slide56

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • The testes primarily synthesize androgens, mainly testosterone, which stimulate development and maintenance of the male reproductive system
    • Testosterone causes an increase in muscle and bone mass and is often taken as a supplement to cause muscle growth, which carries health risks
    • It has been suggested by some scientists that the ratio of two digits in particular, the 2nd (index finger) and 4th (ring finger), is affected by exposure to testosterone (androgens) in the uterus
    • Low 2D:4D is positively correlated with success in sport
    • Discovery article about ratio outcomes
what role do hormones play in making a mammal male or female
What role do hormones play in making a mammal male or female?

RESULTS

Appearance of Genitalia

Embryonic gonadremoved

Chromosome Set

No surgery

Male

Female

XY (male)

Female

Female

XX (female)

melatonin and biorhythms

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Melatonin and Biorhythms
  • The pineal gland, located in the brain, secretes melatonin
  • Light/dark cycles control release of melatonin
did you know
Did you know?…
  • One reason that kittens sleep so much is because a growth hormone is released only during sleep.
  • The levels of two stress hormones, cortisol and epinephrine which suppress the body's immune system, will actually drop after a dose of laughter.
  • Chocolate is associated with the release of serotonin, the hormone that makes you feel relaxed, calm, and happy. So are hugs.