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Small Engine Terminology This presentation is from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Georgia Curriculum Offic

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Small Engine Terminology This presentation is from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Georgia Curriculum Office. Performance Objectives:. Students will be able to define, recognize, and utilize terms concerning small engines effectively. Enabling Objectives.

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slide1

Small Engine TerminologyThis presentation is from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Georgia Curriculum Office.

performance objectives
Performance Objectives:
  • Students will be able to define, recognize, and utilize terms concerning small engines effectively.
enabling objectives
Enabling Objectives
  • Students will define small gas engine terms.
  • Students will use correct terminology in discussion of small engines.
  • Students will recognize small gas engine terminology and be able to effectively apply terms to usage and maintenance of the engine.
slide4
“How does this whachamacallit fit into the whozamathingy?”“I need a flappy white thing that goes on the top of the engine.” “ Effectively communicating your intentions is a key point to success. Terminology is the key!”
small engine maintenance
Small Engine Maintenance
  • Internal Combustion Engine- Device that burns fuel inside a cylinder to create a force that drives a piston.
  • Piston- A sliding cylinder fitting within a cylindrical vessel that receives the force of combusting fuel.
  • Crankshaft- A shaft with an offset projection that converts circular motion to reciprocal motion, or vice versa.
  • Reciprocating- return; move back and forth
slide6
Horizontal shaft engine- An engine with a crankshaft that lies crossways for normal operation
  • Vertical shaft engine- an engine whose crankshaft is vertical for normal operation
  • Stroke- the movement of a piston from top to bottom or from bottom to top
  • Cycle- All the event that take place as an engine takes in air and fuel, compresses the air fuel mixture, burns the fuel, and expels the burned gasses. Also the current produced by one turn of a generator armature.
slide7
Four- stroke cycle- four strokes per cycle
  • Two-stroke cycle- two strokes per cycle
  • Poppet valve- a valve that controls the flow of air and gasses by moving up and down.
  • Port- a special hole in the cylinder wall of a two cycle engine to permit gasses to flow in or out of the cylinder.
  • Reed valve- a flat, flexible plat that permits air or liquid to pass on one direction but seals when the flow reverses.
slide8
Intake stroke- engine process of taking fuel and air into the combustion chamber
  • Compression stroke- Movement of an engine piston to squeeze or compress the air-fuel mixture
  • Compression ratio- the relationship between the volume of an engine cylinder at the beginning and end of the compression stroke.
  • Top Dead Center (TDC)- position of a piston when at its highest point (furthest from the crankshaft)
slide9
Bottom Dead Center (BDC)- piston at its lowest point ( point nearest the crankshaft)
  • Fire- flame; to make a spark jump across an air gap
  • Ignition- a spark igniting an air-fuel mixture
  • Power stroke- the engine process in which burning fuel expands rapidly but evenly to drive the piston down
  • Exhaust- burned gasses removed by the motion of a piston
slide10
Exhaust Stroke- Movement of a piston which expels burned gases from a cylinder
  • Revolution- one complete turn of 360 degrees
  • Momentum- turning force of the flywheel and other moving parts that carries an engine through nonpower strokes.
  • Maintenance- doing the tasks that keep a machine in good condition
slide11
Troubleshooting- determining what causes a malfunction in a machine or process.
  • Repair- to replace a faulty part or make it work correctly.
  • Adjust- to set a part or parts to function as designed.
  • Contaminant- any material that does not belong in a substance
  • Saturate- to add a substance until the excess starts to run out.
slide12
Dual-two
  • Precleaner- a device that removes large particles from air entering an air cleaner
  • Shroud- to cover; a cover
  • Score- to scratch
  • Torqued- A twisting force; to twist
  • Speed indicator- a device used to measure revolutions per minute (RPM) of a turning shaft or part.
  • RPM-revolution per minute
slide13
Leaner- a greater proportion of air and lesser proportion of fuel in an air-fuel mixture.
  • Richer- a mixture with an increased proportion of fuel to air
  • Labor- to struggle or work hard to keep running
small engine adjustment and repair
Small Engine Adjustment and Repair
  • Overhaul- complete disassembly with cleaning and reconditioning or replacement of most moving parts.
  • Governor- Speed control device
  • Air Vane- type of governor used on small engines
  • Carburator- Provides fuel and air to the engine in appropriate portions and volume.
slide15
Needle- A long tapered shaft
  • A hole shaped to receive the needle and control the flow of fuel.
  • Jet or Seat- a hole shaped to receive the needle and control the flow of fuel.
  • Battery- produces electricity by chemical action.
  • Magneto- produces electricity by magnetism
  • Condensor- stores and releases current to boost current in the Primary circuit
slide16
Primary circuit- low-voltage circuit of an ignition system
  • Secondary circuit- high-voltage circuit of an ignition system.
  • High-tension wire- high voltage wire in a secondary circuit
  • Electromagnetic induction- conversion of low-voltage current to high-voltage current with a coil.
  • Ignition spark- hot electrical arc across an air gap
slide17
Ignition points- interrupt the flow in the primary circuit at the correct time to induce the high voltage flow to the spark plug.
  • Discharge- loss of power from a battery
  • Electrolyte- acid solution in a battery
  • Distilled water- free of iron or other parts
  • Armature- the rotating part of a motor. Also the iron core portion of a magneto.
  • Head gasket- seal between the head and the cylinder block
slide18
Valve Spring Compressor- compresses the valve spring to remove keepers.
  • Valve keeper- transfers spring force to valve stem
  • Stem- long, round section of a valve
  • Margin- outer edge of a valve head
  • Face- surface that is intended for use. Also tapered section of a valve head.
  • Lapped in- grinding valves to fit the seat for a perfect seal
slide19
Lapping compound- gritty material used for lapping in valves
  • Valve grinding- the process of grinding valves
  • Valve guide- holds valve stem in alignment
  • Valve stem clearance- air gap between valve and push rod.
  • Cylinder- engine cavity containing a piston
  • Head- flat part of a valve; cylinder cover containing the spark plug and combustion chamber.
slide20
Piston- a sliding cylinder fitting within a cylindrical vessel that receives the force of combusting fuel.
  • Rings- complete the seal between the piston and cylinder wall.
  • Inside micrometer- telescoping gauge used to measure inside surfaces of hollow objects.
  • Telescoping gauge- inside micrometer
  • Cylinder hone- Tool for restoring cylinders
slide21
Ring expander- tool used to remove and install piston rings
  • Blow-by- compression leakage past pistons
  • Piston ring compressor- used to force piston rings into their grooves
  • Wrist pin (Crank pin)- pin between a connecting rod and piston
  • Micrometer- Used to measure outside surfaces of round objects
  • Plastigage- carefully designed material that flattens out uniformly when pressed.
slide22
Rope starter- rope wrapped around a pulley for turning power to start an engine
  • Wind up starter- uses a lever to coil a spring for cranking an engine.
  • Valve pin- Transfers spring force to valve stem
  • Head- flat part of a valve; cylinder cover containing the spark plug and combustion chamber.
vocabulary quiz
Burned gases removed by the motion of the a piston.

The movement of a piston from top to bottom or from bottom to top.

A sliding cylinder fitting within a cylindrical vessel that receives the force of combusting fuel.

The engine process in which burning fuels expands rapidly but evenly to drive the piston down.

Movement of a piston which expels burned gases from a cylinder.

Exhaust stroke

Power Stroke

Piston

Stroke

Exhaust

Vocabulary Quiz
slide24
Doing the tasks that keep a machine in good condition.

Engine process of taking fuel and air into the combustion chamber

Movement of an engine piston to squeeze or compress the air-fuel mixture.

A spark igniting an air-fuel mixture

Turning force of the flywheel and other moving parts that carries an engine through nonpower strokes.

To replace a faulty part or make it work correctly

Repair

Momentum

Intake stroke

Ignition

Compression Stroke

Maintenance

slide25
Determining what causes a malfunction in a machine or process.

All the events that take place as an engine takes in air and fuel, compresses the air-fuel mixture, burns the fuel, and expels the burned gases.

Device that burns fuel inside a cylinder to create a force that drives a piston.

A shaft with an offset projection that converts circular motion to reciprocal motion, or vice versa.

Crankshaft

Troubleshooting

Cycle

Internal Combustion Engine

slide26
Provides fuel and air to the engine in appropriate portions and volume.

Produces electricity by magnetism

The rotating part of a motor.

Seal between the head and the cylinder block

Complete the seal between the piston and the cylinder wall.

Stores and releases current to boost current in the Primary circuit.

Head gasket

Armature

Condensor

Magneto

Carburetor

Rings

slide27
Used to measure outside surfaces of round objects.

Inside Micrometer

Flat part of the valve

A twisting force

Compression leakage past pistons

Telescoping gauge

Blow-by

Torque

Head

Micrometer

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