Project Life Cycle Lecture - 18
Project Life Cycle • The Project Life Cycle refers to a logical sequence of activities to accomplish the project’s goals or objectives. • Regardless of scope or complexity, any project goes through a series of stages during its life. • There is first an Initiation or Birth phase, in which the outputs and critical success factors are defined, followed by a Planning phase, characterized by breaking down the project into smaller parts/tasks, • an Execution phase, in which the project plan is executed, • and lastly a Closure or Exit phase, that marks the completion of the project.
Project Life cycle phases • Diverse project management tools and methodologies prevail in the different project cycle phases. Let’s take a closer look at what’s important in each one of these stages: • 1) Initiation • In this first stage, the scope of the project is defined along with the approach to be taken to deliver the desired outputs. The project manager is appointed and in turn, he selects the team members based on their skills and experience. The most common tools or methodologies used in the initiation stage are Project Charter, Business Plan, Project Framework (or Overview), Business Case Justification, and Milestone s Reviews.
Project Life cycle phases • 2) Planning • The second phase should include a detailed identification and assignment of each task until the end of the project. It should also include a risk analysis and a definition of a criteria for the successful completion of each deliverable. The governance process is defined, stake holders identified and reporting frequency and channels agreed. The most common tools or methodologies used in the planning stage are Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.
Project Life cycle phases 3) Execution and controlling • The most important issue in this phase is to ensure project activities are properly executed and controlled. During the execution phase, the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem specified in the project's requirements. In product and system development, a design resulting in a specific set of product requirements is created. This convergence is measured by prototypes, testing, and reviews. As the execution phase progresses, groups across the organization become more deeply involved in planning for the final testing, production, and support. The most common tools or methodologies used in the execution phase are an update of Risk Analysis and Score Cards, in addition to Business Plan and Milestones Reviews.
Project Life cycle phases 4) Closure • In this last stage, the project manager must ensure that the project is brought to its proper completion. • The closure phase is characterized by a written formal project review report containing the following components: a formal acceptance of the final product by the client, Weighted Critical Measurements (matching the initial requirements specified by the client with the final delivered product), rewarding the team, a list of lessons learned, releasing project resources, and a formal project closure notification to higher management. No special tool or methodology is needed during the closure phase.
JAD, RAD Lecture - 19
Joint Application Development • User Involvement • Users have a vital stake in an information system, and they should participate fully • Successful systems must be user-oriented and users need to be involved
Joint Application Development • JAD Participants and Roles • JAD participants should be insulated from the distraction of day-to-day operations • Objective is to analyze the existing system, obtain user input and expectations, and document user requirements for the new system
Joint Application Development • JAD Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages • Allows key users to participate effectively • When properly used, JAD can result in a more accurate statement of system requirements, a better understanding of common goals, and a stronger commitment to the success of the new system • Disadvantages • More expensive and can be cumbersome if the group is too large relative to the size of the project
Rapid Application Development • Rapid application development (RAD) is a team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system • RAD uses a group approach, but goes much further • The end product of RAD is the new information system
Rapid Application Development • RAD Phases and Activities
Rapid Application Development • RAD Objectives • To cut development time and expense by involving the users in every phase of systems development • Successful RAD team must have IT resources, skills, and management support • Helps a development team design a system that requires a highly interactive or complex user interface
Rapid Application Development • RAD Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages • Systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings • Disadvantages • RAD stresses the mechanics of the system itself and does not emphasize the company’s strategic business needs • Might allow less time to develop quality, consistency, and design standards
RP Lecture - 20
Rapid Prototyping (RP) • A family of fabrication processes developed to make engineering prototypes in minimum lead time based on a CAD model of the item
Why is Rapid Prototyping Important? • Product designers want to have a physical model of a new part or product design rather than just a computer model or line drawing • Creating a prototype is an integral step in design • A virtual prototype (a CAD model of the part) may not be sufficient for the designer to visualize the part adequately • Using RP to make the prototype, the designer can see and feel the part and assess its merits and shortcomings
RP – Two Basic Categories: • Material removal RP - machining, using a dedicated CNC machine that is available to the design department on short notice • Starting material is often wax • Easy to machine • Can be melted and resolidified • The CNC machines are often small - called desktop machining • Material addition RP - adds layers of material one at a time to build the solid part from bottom to top
Starting Materials in Material Addition RP • Liquid monomers that are cured layer by layer into solid polymers • Powders that are aggregated and bonded layer by layer • Solid sheets that are laminated to create the solid part Additional Methods • In addition to starting material, the various material addition RP technologies use different methods of building and adding layers to create the solid part • There is a correlation between starting material and part building techniques
Classification of RP Technologies • There are various ways to classify the RP techniques that have currently been developed • The RP classification used here is based on the form of the starting material: • Liquid-based • Solid-based • Powder-based
RP Applications • Applications of rapid prototyping can be classified into three categories: • Design • Engineering analysis and planning • Tooling and manufacturing