Why did they come? • Gold – Make money • Glory -- Military heroes • God – Religious Freedom OR spread Christianity to Native Americans
Mercantilism • Economic system where a country tries to make money by increasing its balance of trade. What????? Countries used resources from their colonies to make money from trading with other countries and colonies.
Mercantilism: Looking for a good balance of trade.
Northwest Passage Explorers began looking for a shortcut through North America to Asia. • John Cabot sailed for England in 1497 (Newfoundland) • Giovanni de Verrazano sailed for France in 1524 • Jacques Cartier explored the St Lawrence River (Montreal) in 1534 & 1536.
Feuding Countries • England and Spain at war. • Fighting between Protestant and Catholic beliefs. • England defeats the Spanish Armada (Navy) in 1588 Showed that the Spanish could be challenged.
First English Colonies NOT the United States – these are all part of England until July 4, 1776.
Joint Stock Companies Companies that soldstockto investors. The shareholders split both the profits and losses. The colony of Virginia was a joint stock company.
Charter Legal permission by a monarch to establish a colony. Gave the same rights to settlers as English citizens. Virginia charter was given to the Virginia Company.
The Jamestown Settlement • Named after King James I • Swampy land with undrinkable water. • Little leadership at start • Men were more interested in treasure hunting than planting crops. • 104 male settlers
John Smith • 27 year old adventurer. • Captured by Powhattan (Algonquin chief) – Pocahontas begged for his life. • Took leadership role in Jamestown. • If you don’t work – you don’t eat.
The Starving Time • Winter 1609 • Only 60 of the original 214 settlers would survive. • Ate whatever they could to survive • Burned houses and pieces of fort for firewood. • Saved with the arrival of supplies and a new governor.
John Rolfe • Arrived in 1609 • Discovered the soil and climate ideal for tobacco. • Imported seeds from the West Indies. • Jamestown became profitable from tobacco growth.
Marriage of Pocahontas • John Rolfe and Pocahontas were married in 1614. • A small period of peace followed the ceremony.
House of Burgesses • 1619 – colonists were upset with the control of the Virginia Company • Representative government that made laws for the colony of Virginia. • Male land owners could vote.
Class Divisions There were increased tensions between the wealthy plantation owners, and the frontiersmen. Land Politics Protection
Indentured Servants • Land owners would pay for their voyage. The King would reward them with 50 acres of land. 2. The workers agreed to labor in the fields for a set amount of years to pay off their debt. • Indentured servants helped with the labor intensive work of growing tobacco.
Fighting with the Algonquians • New chief, OPECHANCANOUGH, attacked Jamestown in 1622. 347 settlers were killed. • King revoked the Virginia Company’s charter and made Virginia a Royal Colony. • Fighting would continue on the frontier until 1645. • The English forced them to cede (give away) land and recognize the authority of the King.
Bacon’s Rebellion -- 1676 • 1 out of 4 white men were former indentured servants. • They wanted the Governor to go to war with the Indians so they could have land. • Nathanial Bacon and his supporters took control of the House of Burgesses and burned Jamestown to the ground.
Aftermath of Bacon’s Rebellion • Followers were hanged by Gov. Berkeley after Bacon died of illness. • The King was angry and removed Gov. Berkeley The House of Burgesses passed laws to make sure that no Governor could take total control again.
Plymouth Colony 1620
The Pilgrims • Separatist group • Escaped to the Netherlands from England to avoid persecution. • Given a charterfor a small section of the Virginia Company’s charter
Lost at Sea • The Pilgrims’ ships went off course. • Found land in “New England” in present-day Massachusetts. They were outside the border of the Virginia Company’s charter…
Mayflower Compact …so they had to make their own. • All men on board the Mayflower signed the document to organize, “into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation.” Turn to page 82…
Three goals of Plymouth Colony • The glory of God • Advancement of Christian faith • Honor of our King and country
Harsh Winter • Just like Jamestown, the Plymouth Colony has their own “starving time” • Squanto and Samoset helped translate peace with the Massasoit Indians nearby. • The Native Americans helped the colonists learn to fish, grow crops, and build shelter.
Thanksgiving • Three day festival to honor the peace between the Native Americans and Pilgrims. • Blessing for the good harvest.
New Netherland • 1626 – Peter Minuit bought the island of Manhattan for the Dutch. • Established as a trading post, many colonists were involved in the fur trade along the Hudson River. • The Dutch allied (partnered) with the Iroqouis to hunt their land. They often fought with French colonists over hunting ground.
Peter Stuyvesant • Governor of “New Amsterdam” • Strong leader; not well liked. --“Old Silvernails” • Surrendered to England in 1664. New Amsterdam is then named New York.
Puritans • Seekingreligious freedom • Did not want to separate, but purify the Church of England. • Wanted to establish a colonybased on the rules of the Bible.
Massachusetts Bay Colony • Puritans received a charter to follow the Pilgrims and establish a colony in the Massachusetts region. • Not all colonists are Puritan; some migrated for the cheap land. • Governor John Winthrop
John Winthrop in his essay“Model of Christian Charity” “So shall we keep the unity of the spirit, in the bond of peace. . . . Ten of us will be able to resist a thousand of our enemies. . . . For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are on us.”
General Court • Representative assemblyin Massachusetts. • Voted on by church members. Why would this be important??? How would non-church members feel?
Great Migration:1629-1640 • 15-20 Thousand Puritans migrated to the Massachusetts Bay Company • Most settlers lived in or near Boston.