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European Exploration

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  1. European Exploration

  2. Why did they come? • Gold – Make money • Glory -- Military heroes • God – Religious Freedom OR spread Christianity to Native Americans

  3. Mercantilism • Economic system where a country tries to make money by increasing its balance of trade. What????? Countries used resources from their colonies to make money from trading with other countries and colonies.

  4. Mercantilism: Looking for a good balance of trade.

  5. Northwest Passage Explorers began looking for a shortcut through North America to Asia. • John Cabot sailed for England in 1497 (Newfoundland) • Giovanni de Verrazano sailed for France in 1524 • Jacques Cartier explored the St Lawrence River (Montreal) in 1534 & 1536.

  6. Feuding Countries • England and Spain at war. • Fighting between Protestant and Catholic beliefs. • England defeats the Spanish Armada (Navy) in 1588 Showed that the Spanish could be challenged.

  7. First English Colonies NOT the United States – these are all part of England until July 4, 1776.

  8. Joint Stock Companies Companies that soldstockto investors. The shareholders split both the profits and losses. The colony of Virginia was a joint stock company.

  9. Charter Legal permission by a monarch to establish a colony. Gave the same rights to settlers as English citizens. Virginia charter was given to the Virginia Company.

  10. Jamestown 1607

  11. The Jamestown Settlement • Named after King James I • Swampy land with undrinkable water. • Little leadership at start • Men were more interested in treasure hunting than planting crops. • 104 male settlers

  12. Spanish Sketch of Fort

  13. John Smith • 27 year old adventurer. • Captured by Powhattan (Algonquin chief) – Pocahontas begged for his life. • Took leadership role in Jamestown. • If you don’t work – you don’t eat.

  14. The Starving Time • Winter 1609 • Only 60 of the original 214 settlers would survive. • Ate whatever they could to survive • Burned houses and pieces of fort for firewood. • Saved with the arrival of supplies and a new governor.

  15. John Rolfe • Arrived in 1609 • Discovered the soil and climate ideal for tobacco. • Imported seeds from the West Indies. • Jamestown became profitable from tobacco growth.

  16. Marriage of Pocahontas • John Rolfe and Pocahontas were married in 1614. • A small period of peace followed the ceremony.

  17. House of Burgesses • 1619 – colonists were upset with the control of the Virginia Company • Representative government that made laws for the colony of Virginia. • Male land owners could vote.

  18. Class Divisions There were increased tensions between the wealthy plantation owners, and the frontiersmen. Land Politics Protection

  19. Indentured Servants • Land owners would pay for their voyage. The King would reward them with 50 acres of land. 2. The workers agreed to labor in the fields for a set amount of years to pay off their debt. • Indentured servants helped with the labor intensive work of growing tobacco.

  20. Fighting with the Algonquians • New chief, OPECHANCANOUGH, attacked Jamestown in 1622. 347 settlers were killed. • King revoked the Virginia Company’s charter and made Virginia a Royal Colony. • Fighting would continue on the frontier until 1645. • The English forced them to cede (give away) land and recognize the authority of the King.

  21. Bacon’s Rebellion -- 1676 • 1 out of 4 white men were former indentured servants. • They wanted the Governor to go to war with the Indians so they could have land. • Nathanial Bacon and his supporters took control of the House of Burgesses and burned Jamestown to the ground.

  22. Aftermath of Bacon’s Rebellion • Followers were hanged by Gov. Berkeley after Bacon died of illness. • The King was angry and removed Gov. Berkeley The House of Burgesses passed laws to make sure that no Governor could take total control again.

  23. Plymouth Colony 1620

  24. The Pilgrims • Separatist group • Escaped to the Netherlands from England to avoid persecution. • Given a charterfor a small section of the Virginia Company’s charter

  25. Lost at Sea • The Pilgrims’ ships went off course. • Found land in “New England” in present-day Massachusetts. They were outside the border of the Virginia Company’s charter…

  26. Mayflower Compact …so they had to make their own. • All men on board the Mayflower signed the document to organize, “into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation.” Turn to page 82…

  27. Three goals of Plymouth Colony • The glory of God • Advancement of Christian faith • Honor of our King and country

  28. Harsh Winter • Just like Jamestown, the Plymouth Colony has their own “starving time” • Squanto and Samoset helped translate peace with the Massasoit Indians nearby. • The Native Americans helped the colonists learn to fish, grow crops, and build shelter.

  29. Thanksgiving • Three day festival to honor the peace between the Native Americans and Pilgrims. • Blessing for the good harvest.

  30. New Netherland • 1626 – Peter Minuit bought the island of Manhattan for the Dutch. • Established as a trading post, many colonists were involved in the fur trade along the Hudson River. • The Dutch allied (partnered) with the Iroqouis to hunt their land. They often fought with French colonists over hunting ground.

  31. Peter Stuyvesant • Governor of “New Amsterdam” • Strong leader; not well liked. --“Old Silvernails” • Surrendered to England in 1664. New Amsterdam is then named New York.

  32. Puritans • Seekingreligious freedom • Did not want to separate, but purify the Church of England. • Wanted to establish a colonybased on the rules of the Bible.

  33. Massachusetts Bay Colony • Puritans received a charter to follow the Pilgrims and establish a colony in the Massachusetts region. • Not all colonists are Puritan; some migrated for the cheap land. • Governor John Winthrop

  34. John Winthrop in his essay“Model of Christian Charity” “So shall we keep the unity of the spirit, in the bond of peace. . . . Ten of us will be able to resist a thousand of our enemies. . . . For we must consider that we shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are on us.”

  35. General Court • Representative assemblyin Massachusetts. • Voted on by church members. Why would this be important??? How would non-church members feel?

  36. Great Migration:1629-1640 • 15-20 Thousand Puritans migrated to the Massachusetts Bay Company • Most settlers lived in or near Boston.