the avignon papacy and the great schism n.
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The Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism

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  1. The Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism

  2. Question: Why did people in the Middle Ages and Renaissance have such a deep faith in the Church? Comfort and ReassuranceNeeded salvation and sacraments to go to heaven

  3. Temporal (Earthly) Authority of Church Weakened • Influence of strong monarchs and national governments • Boniface VIII battled French Philip the Fair • King wants to tax the French clergy

  4. Papal Bulls (bulla or decrees) • ClericosLaicos 1296: Clergy were not to pay any tax to a lay ruler • UnamSanctam1302: Pope was the supreme authority-even over kings • Phillip invaded Italy and tried to take Boniface VIII prisoner for ransom. • Pope dies of humiliation & stress

  5. Babylonian Captivity 1309-77 • 1305: French bishop elected Pope • Clement V: leaves Rome and moves papacy to Avignon • Technically a papal controlled city-state, seen as a puppet of The French Monarch

  6. Pope Built Papal “Palace”

  7. St. Peter’s in Rome

  8. Financial Corruption Grew • Traditional tithe for upkeep of local churches now a tax • Church officials pay annates (first year income) to pope • All fees from a vacant position in church went to pope • Simony (selling of church offices) reintroduced • Building a bureaucracy to collect revenues for the pope

  9. How do you think the people saw this change in the role of the church? Popes are viewed as corrupted by worldly power Neglecting their spiritual duties

  10. John Wycliffe • Wycliffe was an Oxford Theologian • Advocated the rights of kings against the popes/clergy • Church = Spiritual / King = Temporal • Followers called Lollards and preached in the vernacular, favored reforms • Donatism- efficacy of rituals depended upon the personal worthiness of the clergy

  11. Jan Huss • Rector of University of Prague • Inspired by Wycliffe of Oxford • Denied the Miracle of Transubtantiantion • Concurred with Donatism • Burned at the stake by the Council of Constance in 1414 • Later militant Hussites (Taborites) won concessions from the Council of Basel

  12. Return to Rome: 1377 • Gregory XI moves the papal residence back to Rome- dies • Roman mobs force the election of an Italian pope- Urban VI • French cardinals escape to Avignon and elect an alternative pope • Both Popes excommunicate each other

  13. Great Schism 1378-1437 • TWO popes have different allies • Roman Pope vs. Avignon Pope • Council of Pisa: Asks popes to resign and elects its own pope • THREE popes!!! • Council of Constance 1414: Gets rid of all three and elects Martin V

  14. Conciliar Movement • Theory- Church Councils are superior to the Pope • Councils Pisa, Constance & Basel sought to end the Great Schism and clarify doctrine

  15. How does all of this damage the reputation of the Church? Laity is upset w/ excess & conflict Papacy disgraced as an institution Church is ripe for REFORMATION