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College English Integrated Course II Unit I: Ways of Learning

College English Integrated Course II Unit I: Ways of Learning

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College English Integrated Course II Unit I: Ways of Learning

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  1. College English Integrated Course IIUnit I: Ways of Learning

  2. I. Objectives of Teaching in This Unit. 1. Find out the differences between Chinese and Western attitudes toward learning. 2. Grasp the main idea and the structure of the text; 3. Appreciate the differences between comparison and contrast, as well as ways to compare and contrast; 4. Master the key language points and grammatical structures in the text.

  3. II. Education in the West Much of the current debate over education surrounds the extent to which learning should be teacher-based or student-based. Which of the two should decide what should be learned, how it should be learned, and when it should be learned? Comparing Western and Asian methods of learning it is generally true that western methods are more student-centered, expecting students to discover things for themselves rather than relying on their teachers to tell them.

  4. II. Education in the West An extreme version of the student-centered approach can be seen at Summerhill, a school in England established by the educationist A.S. Neil. There children have complete freedom to decide what they are going to learn and which lessons they will attend. If they wish they need not attend any at all.

  5. II. Education in the West Mainstream education in England is far more strict, demanding that children shouldattend lessons and follow a national curriculum. The curriculum and the importance of achieving good exam results tend to reinforce a more teacher-centered approach, as both teachers and students find the pressure of time leaves less opportunity for an exploratory approach to learning.

  6. Unit 1: Text ALearning, Chinese-Style III. Pre-Reading Questions: 1. Do you agree with the following statements? 1) Play is the best way to learn. 2) Children develop life skills best through formal program. 3) Children are naturally curious, inspired, motivated learners, but sometimes the enjoyment of learning can get lost in the pressure to “succeed” in formal education.

  7. 4). Parents are the most important instructors to the children, so they should give as much guidance as possible. 2. If you find a 2-year-old boy is trying to put a key into the slot, will you help him immediately? 3. Do you remember how your parents taught you in your childhood? Did they like to teach you by holding your hand? 4. Which way did you prefer when you were in trouble with one of the your toys in your childhood, turning to your parents for help or exploring by yourself ?

  8. Benjamin was worried that he couldn’t • put the key into the slot. ( )  IV. Scan Text A and decide whether the following statements are True or False. False Benjamin was not bothered at all. 2. In the Chinese hotel servant’s opinion, the parents should guide Benjamin to insert the key. ( ) True

  9. 3. The author and his wife didn’t care whether Benjamin succeed in inserting the key.( ) True 4. For the Westerners, learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding. ( )  False The Chinese think that learning should take place by continual careful shaping and molding. 5. Chinese teachers hold the opinion that skills should be acquired as early as possible, while American educators think that creativity should be acquired early. ( ) True

  10. V. Part Division of the Text The anecdote that the Chinese hotel servant helped Benjamin to place the key is to introduce the topic of the text. Lines 1-32 Part 1 ( ): Part 2 ( ): The author’s thoughts about different approaches to learning in China and the West. Lines 33-97 Part 3 ( ): In the form of a question, the author gives a suggestion of a more rational approach to fostering creativity and basic skills. Lines 98-102

  11. VI. General Understanding of the Text Part 1 1. How does the author introduce the topic of the text?  There are several ways to introduce a theme. In this text, the author introduces the topic by the key-slot anecdote.

  12. VI. General Understanding of the Text 2. How different is the attitude of the couple from that of the hotel servant toward Benjamin’s efforts in inserting the key into the slot?  The couple: let Benjamin explore and enjoy himself Hotel servant: help his hand and taught him how to insert the key correctly

  13. VI. General Understanding of the Text Part 2 1. Read the first sentence of both Para. 6 and Para. 7, and decide what method of comparison and contrast is used.  Subject-by-subject or One-side-at-a-time method. 2. Sum up the contrast between Chinese and Western ways to learn to fulfill a task.  Chinese: show a child how to do, or teach by holding his hand. Western: teach a child to rely on himself for solutions to problems

  14. VI. General Understanding of the Text 3. Read from Para.11 to Para. 3 to see which method of comparison and contrast is used.  Point-by-point method. • 4. The following are two types of attitudes • toward creativity and basic skills. Which • one belongs to the Chinese and which • one is Western? • Giving priority to developing skills at • an early age, believing that creativity can be promoted over time. •  Chinese.

  15. VI. General Understanding of the Text 3. Read from Para.11 to Para. 3 to see which method of comparison and contrast is used.  Point-by-point method. • 4. The following are two types of attitudes • toward creativity and basic skills. Which • one belongs to the Chinese and which • one is Western? • Giving priority to developing skills at • an early age, believing that creativity can be promoted over time. •  Chinese.

  16. VI. General Understanding of the Text B. Putting more emphasis on fostering creativity in young children, thinking that skills can be picked up later.  Western. 5. There are many ways to end an essay. How does the author end the text?  • Repeating the main points previously stated. • B) Proposing a solution. • C) Quoting from some book or person. • D) Predicting future development. • E) Making a suggestion in the form of suggestion. √

  17. Writing Strategies Three Ways of Comparing Things 1) Comparison: You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike. 2) Contrast: You are asked to explain how two or more things are different. 3) Comparison and Contrast: You are asked to explain how two or more things are alike and different. (More complicated and difficult)

  18. Writing Strategies Two Basic Types of Comparison/Contrast 1. Subject-by-Subject/ Opposing Pattern相对模式 First compare/contrast all the points on the one side, then compare/contrast those on the other side. 2. Point-by-Point/ Alternating Pattern交替模式 First discuss the point on both sides, then the second point, then the third…

  19. Writing Strategies Useful Expressions for Comparison and Contrast:

  20. Where Do You Want to Eat • Directions: For this part, you are supposed to write a composition on the topic Where Do You Want to Eat. You should write no less than 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below. • 经济的发展引出吃在哪里的问题。 • 有的人主张在餐馆和饭店吃。 • 有的人主张在家里吃。

  21. In the past, people seldom thought of eating out in the restaurant. But with the rapid development of our economy, people's living standard has been improved a lot. People begin to pay more and more attention to what to eat and where to eat. .. • Some people such as the businessman, office manager, and other high-salary class prefer to eat in the restaurant. To them, eating outside is a convenient and comfortable way of living. Firstly, it can save them a lot of time.

  22. Secondly, it is better for them to make friends and to talk about their business in a restaurant than at home. • But some people still insist on the habit of eating at home because eating at home makes them feel safe and happy and at the same time, it costs less money. When the whole family sit together by the table, eating the dishes cooked by the mother, what a lovely atmosphere it is!

  23. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text Introductory Paragraph 1. reflect on a visit to China and gives his thoughts on different approaches to learning… reflect on:consider carefully; give an idea of ---Japan needs at least to reflect on their past incursion on china. Any Japanese people with a good conscience should feel sorry for what their ascendants had done in China. ---Journaling provides you with a way to reflect on what is happening to you. give one’s thoughts on: express one’s opinion of

  24. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text ---Joe has never hesitated to give us his thoughts on the computer games we make here. ---Sir Terry Leahy will give you his thoughts on Leadership in the afternoon. approach (to doing sth): (1) a manner or method of doing sth. (2) the act of coming near or nearer; (3) begin to consider or deal with

  25. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text ---The concert for the Taiwan pop singer Zhang Hui-mei was held as scheduled in Beijing on July 31, which showed the Chinese government’s rational approach to cross-strait relations. ---The approach of spring brings warmer weather and more rain. ---The old professor is very strict with his students, but he is very friendly and easy to approach. ---He approached the difficulty with great thought.

  26. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 2.(Line 3)…while studying arts education in… 有些表示时间、地点、条件、方式或让步的从句中,如果谓语含有动词 be, 主语又和句子的主语一致,或者主语是it,常可把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉: ---Look out for cars when (you are) crossing the street. ---When/If taken according to the instructions, the drug has no side effects. ---Although three years old already, he was not able to walk without support.

  27. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text --He hurriedly left the room as though(if) angry. --Once having made a promise, you should keep it. --I’ll have the letter copied if (it is) necessary. --They will put the plan into practice as quickly as possible. --If asked to give an answer, he would become angry.

  28. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 3.(Line 4) But one of the most telling lessons… in difference … came not in the classroom but in the lobby… Paraphrase: But one of the most effective and impressive lessons in difference…took place not in the classroom but in the lobby… Or: I learned one of the most impressive lessons in difference …not in the classroom but in the lobby…

  29. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 4. (Line 7) The key to our room was attached to a large plastic block… attach: fasten,connect or join (one thing to another ) Attach sth. to sth else. --Usually you should attach a recent photograph to your application form when you apply for a position. --Attached to this letter you will find a copy of the document you asked for.

  30. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text attach importance/significance etc to sth: attach blame to sb. for sth. --The company always attach great importance to the quality of products and services, strictly carrying out international quality standards. --More importance in the form of fund should be attached to the development of mandatory education. --We cannot attach blame to him for all this; we made a wrong decision at the wrong time.

  31. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 5. (Lines 8-9) …a guest was encouraged to turn in the key, … turn in: hand in; give back; return; go to bed --It is a poor piece of work you have turned in. --You have to turn in the uniform when you leave the army. --It is a healthy habit to turn in early and get up early.

  32. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 6.(Line 10) …the key had to be positioned carefully to fit into it. 你得留神把钥匙放准位置才能塞进去 fit in/into: take the right space or time in sth. (cause to) be suitable for sth. --I can’t fit the toy into the box; it is crammed. --The secretary managed to fit the appointment into the president’s schedule. --Any new buildings must be fitted into the existing appearance of the city.

  33. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 7. (Line13) Because of his tender age and incomplete understanding of the need to position the key just so, he would usually fail. Paraphrase: Because he was so young and didn’t quite know that he should position the key carefully to fit into the narrow key slot, he would usually fail.

  34. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 8. Benjamin was not bothered in the least. not… in the least: not at all;by no means; far from; not the least bit; anything but; not the least --She is not ugly in the least.(她一點也不難看) --She is not ugly at all. --She is by no means ugly. --She is anything but ugly. --She is far from ugly. --I tried to convince them, but they were not the least interested/ not interested in the least.

  35. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 9.(Lines15-17) He probably got as much pleasure out of the sounds the key made as he did those few times when the key actually found its way into the slot. 译文:他从钥匙声响中得到的快乐大概跟他偶尔把钥匙成功地塞进槽口而获得的快乐一样多。 --In those days, I drank asmuch beer as I could, and put on a lot of weight. I had a big belly then.

  36. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text --He has won as many Olympic gold medals as five. Not so much A as B与其说;倒不如说 --Mariah Carey is not so much an actress as a singer. 10. (Line 20) phenomenon (pl.phenomena) phenomenon: sth that happens or exists and that can be seen or experienced natural/historical/social phenomenon --Language is a social and cultural phenomenon.

  37. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 11.(Line 20-22) Any Chinese staff member would…, noting his lack of initial success, attempt to assist. 译文:饭店里任何一个中国工作人员若在近旁,都会过来看着本杰明,见他初试失败,便会试图帮忙。 注:本句中分词短语noting his lack of initial success用做时间状语: --Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those memorable days they spent together.

  38. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text --Returning home, Professor Hutchins began writing about his adventures. initial: first; of or at the beginning --If a car suddenly pulls out in front of you, your initial reaction may include fear and anger. --Their initial burst of enthusiasm died down when they realized how much work the job involved.

  39. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text assist: help assist sb. with/in doing sth; assist sb. to do sth. --You will be employed to assist in the development of new equipment. --The professor was assisting his students to prepare their project. 12. (Line 25) …as if awaiting a thank you—and on occasion would frown slightly, as if considering us to neglect our parental duties.

  40. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text await: wait for ( “await” is more formally used in writing) --He had been anxiously awaiting her reply ever since he wrote two weeks before. --He has long awaited this moment of winning the championship of world game. on occasion: now and then 有时,间或 --On occasion, a small two-bedroom cottage can be found in the low $200,000s, while oceanfront homes list at over $1,000,000.

  41. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text --Raylene is an avid racing fan who actually has driven stock cars on occasion.  on one occasion: once 有一次,曾经 on the occasion of: at the time sth happens 在…..之际 --On one occasion I drove to the hospital in the middle of the night. --On the occasion of the 7th anniversary of the company’s establishment, the President expressed his heartfelt thanks to all those who have offered the company support and help.

  42. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text neglect: give too little attention or care to sth. --neglect one’s meals and sleep 废寝忘食 --Don’t neglect to lock the door when you leave. Cf. Neglect; ignore; omit 三词均有“忽略、遗漏”之意。 neglect:指对职责义务或应做之事未给予足够注 意;忘记可能是有意或无意的。 --Those who neglect their duties should be punished. --Why do you always neglect the traffic regulations?

  43. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text ignore:指忽视不顾,强调故意不理会,有时还含有固执地拒绝之意 --When I saw Tom, I stopped to greet him, but he ignored me and walked on. --A teacher should not ignore any question that his students may ask him. omit: 指因专注或疏忽而忘记谋事,这种失误可能是有意或无意的,它还可指删除不利或不必要的东西。 --He should not omit to visit the museum. --The third part of the book may be omitted.

  44. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 13. (Line 28) relevant: directly connected with the subject (opposite: irrelevant) be relevant to sth. --What experience do you have that is relevant to this position? --Only a few people feel the debate about the cloning of human beings is relevant to their daily lives.

  45. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 14. pattern: investigate sth., investigate + wh clause --Police are still investigating how the accident happened. --We assure you that your complaint will be fully and properly investigated.

  46. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 15. (Line 30) and to throw light on Chinese attitudes toward creativity. Paraphrase:and to help to explain how the Chinese think look at creativity of the students. throw light on sth: help to explain or understand. --The report in the newspaper throws light on the death of the pop star. --These facts throw new light on the matter.

  47. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 16. (Line 34) With a few exceptions … exception: ab/sth. that a comment or statement does not include --Normally, parents aren’t allowed to sit in on class, but in your case we can make an exception. --Without exception all our youngsters wanted to leave school and start work. --There is an exception to this grammatical rule. --We all laughed, with the exception of Maggie.

  48. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text Collocation(搭配) --with many/few exceptions 有很多/少例外 --without exception 毫无例外;一律 --with the exception of 除…之外 --make an exception of 把…作为例外 --make no exceptions 不容许有例外; 一视同仁

  49. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text 17. (Line 36) …which is the ultimate purpose of approaching the slot, … to realize the desired action on his own. ultimate: last; considered as an origin or base greatest --After many defeats, the war ended for us in ultimate victory. --The ultimate responsibility lies with the president. --The sun is the ultimate store of power.

  50. VII. Detailed Language Study of the Text on one’s own: without anyone’s help; alone --Children should be given opportunities to solve problems on their own. --The child was left on her own for hours as her mom had to deal with the emergency. --I’d rather not go to the dance on my own. I do wish you’d come with me.