part i chapter 18 archaebacteria eubacteria n.
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PART I Chapter 18 Archaebacteria & Eubacteria - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PART I Chapter 18 Archaebacteria & Eubacteria. Phylogeny. Characteristics. First living evidence on earth Unicellular Prokaryotes (No membrane-bound organelles) Cell wall with internal plasma membrane Found everywhere. Bacteria. Bacteria Structures.

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characteristics
Characteristics
  • First living evidence on earth
  • Unicellular
  • Prokaryotes (No membrane-bound organelles)
  • Cell wall with internal plasma membrane
  • Found everywhere
bacteria structures
Bacteria Structures
  • Cell wall – provides support and protection to the cell
  • Plasma membrane – flexible, selectively permeable boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell
  • Cytoplasm – semi-fluid material inside the cell’s plasma membrane
  • Ribosome – organelle that helps to manufacture proteins
  • DNA - stores and communicates genetic information for the cell
bacteria structures1
Bacteria Structures
  • Pilus/pili - hairlike protrusion
    • to stick to surfaces
    • a bridge for sexual reproduction
  • Flagellum - long, whiplike protrusion, for moving
  • Capsule - sticky layers around cell wall
  • Toxin - a powerful poison
  • Endospore – found in some bacteria - resists harsh environments
classification three basic shapes
Classification:Three Basic Shapes
  • Cocci -SpheresBacilli -RodsSpirilli -Spiral
classification
Classification:
  • Gram stain – Cell wall type
  • Thick – Purple Stain = “Gram Positive”
  • Thin - Pink Stain = “Gram Negative”
growth patterns
Growth Patterns
  • Diplo- pairs
  • Staphylo- clusters
  • Strepto- chains
beneficial bacteria
Beneficial Bacteria
  • Nitrogen fixation
    • Converts nitrogen into ammonia
    • a form that plants can use
  • Nodules
    • A symbiotic relationship between bacteria and plants
beneficial bacteria1
(Beneficial Bacteria)

Saprophytes (decomposers)

  • Breaks down dead organisms and decaying matter
  • Returns nutrients to soil
beneficial bacteria2
(Beneficial Bacteria)

Make food:

  • Cheese
  • Pickles
  • Yogurt
  • Vinegar
  • Sauerkraut
pathogenic bacteria disease causing bacteria
Pathogenic Bacteria – disease-causing bacteria
  • Pathogen – an organism that causes disease
  • Produce toxins
  • Damage host’s tissues
  • Enter through openings in body (via air, food, water)
antibiotics destroys cell wall of bacteria creates holes in the cell walls
Antibiotics:~ Destroys cell wall of bacteria~ Creates holes in the cell walls

Sir Alexander Fleming1928 - discovered Penicillium notatum

reproduction
Reproduction

Asexual

  • Binary Fission
    • Cell division
  • Rapid - 20 min.

Sexual

  • Conjugation – exchange genetic material
  • Pili/pilus - bridge