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Last time:. The concept of culture at several levels The concept of nation An imagined community repetera tre paradoxer – definitionen : This is Swden. Film screening: This is Sweden . Full of predictable pictures, scenes, gallery of personalities. Landscapes

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last time

Last time:

The concept of culture at several levels

The concept of nation

An imagined community repeteratreparadoxer – definitionen:

This is Swden

film screening this is sweden
Film screening: This is Sweden
  • Full of predictable pictures, scenes, gallery of personalities.
  • Landscapes
  • Traditional folk-art, music and clothing
  • Technique, science, industry
  • High culture
  • Popular culture
  • Not serious people, active, snow and moose

How are imagined communities created and how do they survive over time and space?

  • How is the social and geopolitical space of the nation turned into a cultural room where people share experiences and references?
how sweden became swedish
How Sweden became swedish

1. We will look at the period of modern nationalism -1800 –

The making of states – heritage from French revolution - new organisation of society –

Assamblé national – people representation - parlementarism – election

1809 (regeringsformen) Instrument of the government. Power divided – government, Riksdag and high court


An interest in creating loyalty and assimilation – cohesion among the citizens –

  • Rich and poor, different stratas, unite despite heritage, family,property as citizens equal rights and duties.
  • An political interest in making the borders of the political state and the cultural nation match.
  • Create possibilities for imagined community.

2. A break social and economically

  • Industrialization – new technique for communication and consumtion.

Changing labor market, access to property new social classes – bourgeoisie and working class

and for scandinavia
And for Scandinavia
  • Finland lost 1809
  • Norway in union 1815-1905
  • Denmark 1658
  • Borders where settled

3. These aspects of modern nationalism during 19th and 20th century

  • Nation state building and industrialization – the cause for nation building.
  • A) An active process – rhetoric and politic ”defining things as national”

In the early 19th century: National gallery, national bank, national mentality, national park, national cuisine, national army etc.

… military service, compulsory school , state church

  • B) An inherent, hidden process taking place in everyday practice – things we do as members of a nation- lots of things prescribes our daily life – labour market, education system, family insurance public service, train communication etc.

The nation building a paradox

  • International standards - a make-it-yourself –kit
  • We ”the nations” do it the same way to create difference.

A conservative nationalism during the 19th century

  • The great period of national heroes, monuments – the Swedish kings Gustav II Adolf.
  • Patriotic subjects conserving the old traditional divisions of property, power, influence the superior and the subordinate
on thing was the creation of a national monument
On thing was the creation of a national monument
  • The monument Greece and the ancient history – the cradle of democracy – impact aesthetically.
  • 1820(1821) independent from Ottoman empire 1828 Monarchy
another part during 19th century
Another part during 19th century
  • Liberal nationalism – conscious citizens
  • A fight about power and influence
  • A growing bourgoisie – a ”quiet” nationalism beyond class barriers.
  • The cult of the nature.
  • Finding the national landscape – the mountains and the silence and Norden in the national Anthem
  • JfrRousseu – liberal ideas of the effect of the alps – open mind, air, sky
  • The region Dalecarlia – the geniuneSwedishness – in folklore and also the nature.
  • Rättviksdräkt – intellectuals and Bourgoisie from Stockholm spent hollidays in Dalecarlia, dressed in folkclothing
  • National romanticism Carl Larsson/Anders Zorn/ Arthur Hazelius

Painters, writers etc praising the landscape and nature – pilgrimage

  • Stereotyping
  • Access to nature – the peasants (like an extra in a film) the working class not morally ready for understanding the sublimit of nature.
the international competition
The international competition
  • World Exhibition in London 1851
  • Technique, future – but it was the traditional folklore that was appreciated and won golden medals
  • The unique nature of Scandinavia – a concept

Around 1900 – nationalism an arena of conflict in values between conservatives and liberals.

  • Liberal ideas stronger – ”quiet” nationalism based in the idea of the genuine ”people” and the nature. The moral impact of mountains – the liberated, self-confident peasant.

Kleens competition – secretary of a legation placed in southern France

  • The sleeping mother Svea
  • Placed in the entrance hall of the parliament as an obstacle for people coming in or out.
  • The lack of patriotism – critique against an old unequal society – migration -

Willhelm Moberg

  • August Strindberg
  • Ellen Key
the growing working class a threat
The growing working class a threat
  • Social democrats where internationalists
  • Only one native country: Socialism
  • Only one war of glory: The class struggle
  • Only one flag: Internationalen

Modernisation – get rid of the old build up a new society

  • not celebrating despotism and kings
  • Ideological movements
  • Anti alcoholism
  • Women's liberation
  • Working class movement
  • Independent churches
  • Ung socialists – against war
  • Equal rights and duties
  • Access to place and competences not bound by social heritage - liberation
interwar time
Interwar time
  • The idea of a welfare state
  • Taxes and resources – distribution policy
  • Universal suffrage
  • Equity

1931 The Social Democrat Party becomes the leading party –

  • Create a new modern society – ”Sweden for all Swedes”
  • Within politics ideas of better standard for living, avoid over crowded homes

Per Albin Hansson ” beloved monarch” leader of the social democrat party

  • 1932 - 46
  • Political vision – create the modern rational man – not stucked in old unfair society looking forwards
  • ”Folkhemmet” ”Peoples home” ”Citizens home”

Social justice, democracy, citizenship and modernity find new heroes in history

  • The national flag day 6 of june (Gustav Wasa) parlamenatrism
  • Engelbrekt the first Riksdag 1435 - 1935
  • August Andrée Engineer, scientist, explorer the north pole expedition in ballon


  • 1810 Albert Loos
  • Ornament und Verbrechen
  • The design should reveal the function

The Stockholm Exhibition 1930

  • New lifestyle – functionalist in every sense – planning kitchens wardrobe's etc.
  • standardization
  • The ”sitting room” use all areas of the house
  • No classes, conformism and Average Svensson
  • Equality – conformity
  • Admiration international because of the sameness – can´t tell if the home is rich or poor – same aesthetic style
  • Still strong – antiques old furniture does not sell in Sweden.