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Characteristics of Life. Biology 9. Characteristics of all Living Things. Living Things: Are made up of units called cells Reproduce Are based on a universal genetic code Grow and develop Obtain and use of materials and energy Respond to their environment

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characteristics of all living things
Characteristics of all Living Things
  • Living Things:
    • Are made up of units called cells
    • Reproduce
    • Are based on a universal genetic code
    • Grow and develop
    • Obtain and use of materials and energy
    • Respond to their environment
    • Maintain a stable internal environment
    • Change over time
life defined
Life Defined
  • Living things exhibit ALL of these characteristics.
  • Dead things USED to exhibit all of these characteristics
  • Non-living things do not exhibit ALL of the characteristics.
  • Anything that exhibits all the characteristics is called an organism and is classified/categorized in the biological system by taxonomy. (scientific name, place in taxonomy comes from its attributes.
1 made up of cells
1. Made up of Cells
  • Small self contained units.
  • A collection of living matter enclosed by a membrane (barrier) that separates the inside of the cell from the surroundings.
  • Cells are alive they exhibit all characteristics of life.
  • Unicellular Organism- basic organism consisting of one cell. (bacteria, protists)
  • Multicellular Organism- complex oragnism consisting of many cells, those cell will usually have specialized functions. More diverse. (animals, plants)
  • Multicellular organisms can have thousands or even trillions of cells. Humans have over 85 different cell types!
2 reproduction
2. Reproduction
  • All organisms produce new organisms through reproduction
    • Sexual- cells from two different parents combine to create a new organism.
    • Asexual- new organism arises from a single parent.
      • Two ways- Selfing and Binary fission.
      • Selfing occurs when an adult grows the new organism off of its self (ex. Hydra)
      • Binary fission- the organism copies all of its parts and splits into two organisms.
3 based on genetic code
3. Based on Genetic Code
  • The genetic code carries instructions for producing and maintaining an organism.
  • It allows for continuity of life. Parents and offspring share the same or similar traits.
  • Dogs produce dogs not cats!
  • Traits are inherited from the parents to offspring.
  • The universal genetic code is carried in a molecule called a nucleic acid for all known life.
    • DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid
    • RNA viruses?? alive?
4 growth and development
4. Growth and Development
  • All living things grow for at least a portion of their lives.
    • Growth- size increase
  • All Multicellular organisms go through a process of development in addition of growth.
    • Development- increase in cell number, size, differentiations, changes in structure,
    • Ex. Butterfly, humans, plants.
    • Differentiation- cells specialize in their structure and function (ex. Muscle cells, brain cells, etc.)
5 need for materials and energy
5. Need for materials and Energy
  • Organisms must get energy and the building blocks of life for growth and development.
  • Organisms need building blocks of life and energy to maintain life.
  • All organisms take in selected materials from their surroundings.
  • They must be broken down into their basic building blocks and used to build molecules for the organism.
    • This process is called metabolism.
    • Producers use the sun as an energy source.
    • Consumers use other organisms as an energy source.
6 response to environment
6. Response to Environment
  • Stimulus Response- response to immediate changes
    • Examples : Plants bending toward sunlight, animals moving away from perceived danger
  • Adaptation Response- response to long-term changes
    • Change in fur color to match environment, switching to a new food source
7 maintaining internal balance
7. Maintaining Internal Balance
  • All living organisms, unicellular and multicellular are able to maintain an internal balance because they cell separates in internal from the external.
    • This balance is called Homeostasis.
    • Conditions in the internal environment remain stable even with the changing outside environment.
    • Often involves internal feedback mechanisms and external feedback mechanisms
    • Example: Need for water and thirst, increase in temperature and sweating.
8 change over time
8. Change over time
  • All living organisms as a whole population change over time based on their environment.
  • This process is called evolution.
  • It does not involve and organism changing from one to another.
  • It does involve an organism population changing in types, number, and ability of traits in the organism.
    • Example: Cave organisms
  • Every known organism has been observed to evolve over time.