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A3.3SY1Sport and Exercise Psychology Theory Based Practice: STRESS AND ANXIETY AILSA ANDERSON 12 October 2005
Plan for today • Consider definitions of stress, anxiety and arousal • Review theories of anxiety related to sport performance • Identify how to enhance anxiety control in athletes • * • NB – Ch12 and 13 in Cox (2002)
* Cognitive Appraisal • Primary Appraisal: • Are the demands of this situation important to me and likely to threaten or harm my well-being and achievement of goals? • If no – then conditions won’t lead to negative emotional response • If yes- then…
* Secondary Appraisal: • Do I have the resources to cope effectively with the demands of this situation? • If yes = then negative emotional response doesn’t occur (balance – Cox (2002) • If no = negative emotional response (e.g., anxiety )
* (1) State and Trait Anxiety Spielberger (1966) • State anxiety –“subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension and apprehension associated with…arousal of the autonomic nervous system” • Pre-bungy jump/ exam/ pre-cup final match
* • Trait anxiety- “a general disposition that certain individuals possess to respond to a variety of (relatively unthreatening) situations with a high levels of state anxiety” • Personality trait/ relatively enduring
* Somatic anxiety – • ‘my heart is beating so fast’ • refers to individual’s perception of their physiological response to the stressful situation in which they find themselves • Theory suggests it is a conditioned response (e.g., to a competition setting)
* How does anxiety effect performance? • Arousal-based theories: • Drive theory • Inverted-u • Anxiety-based theories: • Individualised Zone Of Optimal Functioning • Multi-Dimensional State Anxiety Theory • Catastrophe Theory • Reversal Theory
CA Perf * • COGNITIVE ANXIETY – concerned with consequences of failure • Theory predicts a negative linear relationship with performance
* Developments on MDA • Inconsistent findings • Focused on intensity of anxiety • IE – how anxious do you feel? • Didn’t look at • frequencyof symptoms • **Interpretation of these symptoms
* • E.G. • “cool, I’ve got butterflies that’s me ready to perform” • “oh no, I’ve got butterflies, I must be nervous” • (Links back to cognitive appraisal model of stress)
* Jones et al (1994) elite Vs non-elite swimmers pre-race • No significant diffs between CA and SA intensity scores of • But elite swimmers interpreted symptoms as more facilitative to performance • Direction is a better prediction of performance than intensity
* Dealing with pre-comp anxiety • Matching hypothesis (Maynard et al., 1995) • Match intervention to the type of anxiety • E.G. • cognitive anxiety = ? • somatic anxiety = ?
* Summary • Stress, anxiety and arousal • MDSA - CA and SA hypothesised to have different relationship with performance • Research is inconclusive • Looking at intensity is insufficient • Role of interpretation • Dealing with pre-competition anxiety