ANEMIAS OF DIMINISHED ERYTHROPOIESIS . includes anemias that are caused by : 1- inadequate dietary supply of nutrients: e.g. iron, folic acid, and vitamin B 12 . 2- anemias associated with bone marrow failure ( aplastic anemia) 3- anemia of chronic disease (systemic inflammation)
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1- inadequate dietary supply of nutrients: e.g. iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12.
2- anemias associated with bone marrow failure (aplastic anemia)
3- anemia of chronic disease (systemic inflammation)
4- bone marrow infiltration by tumor or inflammatory cells (myelophthisic anemia).
- (e.g., peptic ulcers, colonic cancer, hemorrhoids) and the female genital tract
The bone marrow is markedly hypercellular and contains numerous megaloblasticerythroid
Pernicious anemia is the most frequent cause of vitamin B12 deficiency. This disease seems to stem from an autoimmune reaction against parietal cells and intrinsic factor itself, which produces gastric mucosal atrophy
(1) low serum vitamin B12levels
(2) normal or elevated serum folatelevels
(3) serum antibodies to intrinsic factor
(4) moderate to severe megaloblasticanemia
(5) leukopenia with hypersegmentedgranulocytes
(6) a dramatic reticulocytic response (within 2 to 3 days) to parenteral administration of vitamin B12
certain viral infections, most often community-acquired viral hepatitis