OBESITY Harun Butt and Humza Noor
UK Obesity Statistics • About 46% of men in England and 32% of women are overweight, and an additional 17% of men and 21% of women are obese. • Overweight and obesity increase with age. About 28% of men and 27% of women aged 16-24 are overweight or obese but 76% of men and 68% of women aged 55-64 are overweight or obese. • Overweight and obesity are increasing. The percentage of adults who are obese has roughly doubled since the mid-1980's.
What Is Obesity?? • Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality.
Causes of Obesity • When food energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, fat cells (and to a lesser extent muscle and liver cells) throughout the body take in the energy and store it as fat.
Factors Causing Obesity • Genetic factors and some genetic disorders. • A high glycemic diet. • Eating disorders. • Underlying illness – hypothyroidism. • Certain medications. • Laziness. • Weight cycling. • Adenosine A1 receptor activation • Stressfulmentality. • Insufficient sleep. • Smoking cessation.
BMI – Body Mass Index • Obesity is typically evaluated by measuring BMI - body mass index, waist circumference, and evaluating the presence of risk factors. • BMI is the main form of obesity evaluation. • BMI = kg / m2
What does Obesity Lead to?? • Cardiovascular Diseases. • Diabetes mellitus type 2. • Arteriosclerosis. • Cancer. • Gallbladder disease and gallstones. • Osteoarthritis. • Gout. • Sleepapnea. • Asthma.
Funking Facts • Hypertension is twice as common in obese individuals causing heart to work harder leading to increased risk of heart disease. • Incidence of heart disease is increased in persons who are obese by up to six times. • Overweight people are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes as people who are not overweight.
More Funking Facts • Obesity increases these circulating lipoproteins – LDL’s etc. and eventually leads to atherosclerosis and thrombosis. • Overweight men are at greater risk of developing cancer of the colon, rectum, and prostate. • The risk of gallstones is approximately 3 x greater for obese people than in non-obese people. The risk of gallstones correlates with a rise in body mass index (BMI).
Even More Funking Facts • Extra weight increases the risk of osteoarthritis by placing extra pressure on joints and wearing away the cartilage that normally protects them. • The risk for sleep apnea increases with higher body weights.Sleep apnea can cause a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep and to snore heavily. This leads to daytime sleepiness and even heart problems. • Obesityleads to raised blood pressure and musculoskeletal problems (hampering mobility and use of leg muscles), all of which are contributory factors in the development of chronic venous insufficiency.
Treatments for Obesity • Exercise. • Change in Diet. • Drugs –Amphetaminessibutramine. • Surgical Intervention -liposuction, tummy tucks, intestinal bypass etc.
References • www.wikipedia.org • www.google.co.uk • www.annecollins.com • www.bbc.com • www.cnn.com