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Obesity. India S. Sharp, BSN, RN November 02, 2013. Objectives. Provide knowledge of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, symptoms, & non-pharmacological treatments. Obesity. Obesity is a label for ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height .

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India S.Sharp, BSN, RN

November 02, 2013

  • Provide knowledge of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, symptoms, & non-pharmacological treatments
  • Obesity is a label for ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height.
  • Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat. It increases risk of disease and health problems such as Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, gallbladder disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, and hyperlipidemia. Weight loss can reduce these risks by 10%.
  • Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease needing management in other disease such as diabetes and hypertension with physical, psychological, and social consequences.
  • Abdominal obesity, rather than body fat, can be a useful indicator of cardiovascular and cancer related outcomes. Measuring abdominal obesity includes waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio.
  • More than one-third (35.7%) of the adults in the United States are obese in 2009-2010.
  • Obesity effects all groups in society, irrespective of age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational level, and geographic group.
  • Adults over the age of 60 were more likely to be obese than younger adults.

Hypertophic versus Hypercellular obesity

  • Hypertrophic obesity usually starts in adulthood and responds to weight reduction measures.
  • Hypercellulary obesity typically occurs in persons who develop obesity in childhood or adolescence. Hypercellular obesity may find it difficult to lose weight without surgical intervention.
  • Obesity is the imbalance between energy intake (Eating too much) and energy output (not exercising or too little).
predisposing factors
Predisposing Factors

Predisposing Factors

  • Metabolic factors (Leptin levels)
  • Genetic factors (Family history of obesity)
  • Level of activity (Lack of exercise/sedentary lifestyle, Television (TV), computer, and hand-held game use more than 3 hours/day, and increase leisure time)
  • Endocrine factors
  • Race, sex, and age factors
  • Ethnic and cultural factors (Ethic background: African American, Hispanic)
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Smoking Cessation
  • Pregnancy and menopause
  • Psychological factors
  • History of gestational diabetes
  • Lactation history in mothers
  • Dietary habits (consuming too many calories/high fat diet, Poor dietary choices, and/or Readily available food sources, especially fast foods)
common complaints signs and symptoms
Common Complaints/Signs and Symptoms

Common Complaints/Signs and Symptoms

  • Difficulty performing routine daily activities, including hygiene.
  • Inability or lack of interest in exercising
  • Shortness of breath and/or asthma exacerbation
  • Incontinence
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
  • Infertility/polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Symptoms of cholelithiasis (heartburn, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headaches, light or chalky colored stool, and dark urine)
  • Hypertension
treatment non medical
Treatment Non-Medical
  • Diet changes
    • Low calorie
    • Increase fruits and vegetables
    • Eliminate alcohol and sugar-containing beverages
    • Reduce intake of sweets and sugars
    • Reduce fat intake
    • Reduce portion sizes
    • Increase water intake
  • Exercise (Increase activity as tolerated)
    • Encourage getting up for 10 minutes each hour
    • Start off with just walking as tolerated
  • Dietitian
  • Psychologist consultation