Obesity Georgia Ross & Yaren Cengiz.
WHAT IS OBESITY • Obesity relates to carrying excess body weight in the form of fat. • For adults, obesity is defined as having a body mass index (BMI) of over 30, or a waist measurement of more then 89cm for women and 102cm for men. • In Australia, the rate of obesity rate has been increasing over time. The causes of obesity are often linked to eating more energy dense foods without undertaking any exercise to burn off excess energy.
Why has obesity been selected in NHPA • Obesity has been selected for NHPA as it is related to the development of other conditions. • Obesity leads to a range of diseases and conditions that are affected by biological determinants including • Cardiovascular disease • Diabetes mellitus • Arthritis • Kidney disease
How does obesity contribute to burden of disease • According to the international obesity taskforce, by 2025 one in every three adults in the world will be obese if current trends continue. • Obesity was thought to be responsible for 7.5% of the total burden of disease in 2013.
Risk factors of Obesity Biological determinant: • Age - metabolism slows down as we get older which makes it difficult to maintain weight. • Genetic predisposition - that causes people to gain weight. • Hormonal disturbances - increases appetite and fat distribution. Behavioural determinant: • A lack of physical activity - lessens the amount of energy burnt • Excessive alcohol consumption - contains high amount of kilojoules. • Having a unhealthy diet - may contain large amounts of fat and carbohydrates. Social determinant: • Socio economic status (low SES) – eating fast food is a cheaper option. • Food security – Cant access healthy food (rural/remote areas). • Stress – emotional eating Physical determinant: • Access to recreational facilities – May not afford gym memberships. • Work environment – sitting at a desk all day with no physical activity • Transport systems – travelling via car instead of walking to and from station to work/school.
Shape Up Australia • One of many health promotions are Shape Up Australia, developed by the federal government aiming to help Australians reduce their waist measurements and improve their overall health and wellbeing. • Shape up aims to strengthen and coordinate obesity prevention across Australia. Shape up is free of charge which makes it accessible to everyone. They provide eat for health cookbooks, there is a website which provides information and knowledge on how to engage in physical activity and make healthy food choices. • It is promoted by social media such as Facebook and Twitter and through The Women's Weekly magazine. • The website can be reached by www.shapeup.gov.au http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UWTlHqca5AM
Swap it • The swap it, don’t stop it campaign has been introduced to Australian’s to provide examples of healthy eating and how easy it could be. It is to reduce waist measurements and to improve overall health and wellbeing, aiming to prevent obesity and the illnesses/diseases that come with it. • Swapping big plates for small, fries to salad, soft drink to water, fried food to grilled or fresh, sitting to moving and watching the game to playing. They provide a 12 week food planner for free to help guide a healthy diet. The highlight of the campaign is you can 'lose your belly without losing out on all the things you love.’ • Many resources that are easy access for everyone such as the IPhone app, fact sheets and brochures • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDYlw4vRMNE
Direct, Indirect and intangible costs Direct (Individuals) – A person suffering from a heart attack needs an ambulance which requires an ambulance fee to be paid. Also ongoing medical needs are out of pocket expenses which Medicare may not cover. Direct (Community) – Money from the community goes to prevention strategies for individuals that are suffering from obesity. Indirect (Individuals) – If a disease develops from a obesity and can no longer work, it reduces income. Indirect (Community) – If they can no longer work there is a loss of taxation revenue which means funding for community programs decrease. Intangible (Individual) – Obesity can lead to a low self esteem and contribute to feelings of worthlessness which can affect a person’s motivation to complete activities. Intangible (Community) – A loss of participation in activities could affect the community as the individual may have had knowledge and resources that may promote wellbeing.