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S1/S2 DATA BOOK

S1/S2 DATA BOOK

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S1/S2 DATA BOOK

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  1. S1/S2 DATA BOOK Design and Technology

  2. Contents The symbols opposite will help you to identify the topics • Health and Safety Rules • Designing • Data on Timber • Man-made Boards • Methods of Joining Timber • Woodworking Hand Tools • Machine Tools • Methods Of Fixing Timber • Wood Finishes

  3. Contents • Metals and their Properties • Metalworking Hand Tools • Permanent Methods of Joining Metal • Metal Finishes • Data on Plastics • Plastics and their Properties • Shaping and Forming Plastics • Systems • Sub-Systems

  4. Contents • Graphic Symbols and Signs • Charts and Graphs • Free Hand Sketching • Measurement • Orthographic Drawing - 3 rd Angle Projection • Lines and Symbols • Perspective Drawing • Isometric Projection • Oblique Projection • Colour Theory • The Colour Wheel • Shading and Rendering

  5. Health and Safety Rules Attention to safety is the most important thing in any workshop and everyone, teachers and pupils alike, must learn the following simple safety rules before beginning any practical work. 1. Always dress safely: • The best way to prepare for a practical lesson is to take off your jacket and put on an apron. • Long sleeves are dangerous so they should be rolled up. • Long hair is also dangerous and should be tied back so that it cannot fall forward. • Jewellery should be removed and ties safely tucked in. Contents

  6. Health and Safety Rules 2.Always wear the correct safety equipment: • Take special care to protect hands, eyes and feet. If there is the slightest risk of eye injury safety goggles should be worn. • When handling hot materials gauntlet style protective gloves should be worn. • In order to avoid any foot injuries, strong shoes should be worn in the workshop. 3. Never run or play in the workshop and do not play tricks on people: • Accidents in the craft rooms usually result from silly behaviour. • Never act in a foolish manner in the craft room or encourage anyone else to act in a foolish manner. Remember someone else's foolish behaviour could result in your injury. • Always carry tools and materials safely. • Sharp tools must be held so that they cannot cut anybody. Contents

  7. Health and Safety Rules 4. Never use a machine without permission and correct training: • Only ONE person at a time can use a machine. • Do not distract or stand talking to anyone who is operating a machine. • You must wear safety goggles when operating machinery. • Make sure all machine safety guards are in place and that the work to be machined is held securely. 5. Keep yourself and the workshop clean and tidy: • To avoid the danger of skin disease, always wash your hands thoroughly at the end of each lesson. • Care should be taken to avoid spilling paint, varnish etc. onto your clothes. • Do not allow tools, materials or waste to litter the benches, machines or floor. Never break a safety rule. If in doubt ask. Contents

  8. Designing THE DESIGN PROCESS – is the steps that you go through to get from a problem to the solution. Problem Analysis Required Specification Investigation Solution Manufacture Evaluation Contents

  9. Designing PROBLEM – States what your problem is but not how it should be solved. e.g. I keep mixing my keys up with my brother, and need to be able to identify my own keys. REQUIRED SPECIFICATION – This is a list that describes what the solution has to be able to do, and be like. It will describe such features as size, shape, safety, function etc. e.g. The pencil has to: • Be a suitable size to fit into your pocket • Be easy to hold • Cost 15p or less • Be brightly coloured to appeal to children. Contents

  10. Designing INVESTIGATION – This is where you investigate • the types of material that are available for you to use • designs that you want to try • colour that you would like to use • Finish that you could use • environment that it will be used in • maximum cost Contents

  11. 40 4 5 PLAN 4 60 END ELEVATION END ELEVATION ELEVATION Designing SOLUTION – This should contain a sketch of what you intent to make. The solution usually contains a set of Working Drawings. These drawing show all the parts, their shapes, and their sizes, and how they fit together. this allows you to plan for your manufacture 5 Contents

  12. Designing MANUFACTURE – This will contain a cutting listthat will help you to collect the correct material. The manufacture contains a Sequence of Operations; this is a set of instructions that describes how to make the product. All steps must be in the correct order and the tools that will be used named. Sketches should be used to help make the sequence clearer. Contents

  13. Designing EVALUATION – Testing a finished product. • ‘How well does it do the job?’ • ‘Does it look good?’ • The best way to evaluate something is to test it against the Required Specifications. The evaluation also includes • ‘Problems met during manufacture’ • ‘Things I’d do better next time’ • ‘Good and bad points.’. Contents

  14. Data on Timber There are 2 types of timber: SOFTWOOD and HARDWOODS. It has nothing to do with how hard the wood is. SOFTWOODS come from trees that have needles and cones (coniferous trees). The needles remain all year round, except for one or two species. The grain is usually very noticeable. Examples: Pine, Larch, and Spruce. They grow in cool countries like the UK, Scandinavia, Canada, and Russia. HARDWOODScome from trees that have broad leaves. (Broadleaf trees). They are common in cool countries also, and the leaves fall off in winter. Examples: Oak, Ash, and Elm. Contents

  15. Data on Timber There are 2 types of timber: SOFTWOOD and HARDWOODS. It has nothing to do with how hard the wood is. SOFTWOODS come from trees that have needles and cones (coniferous trees). The needles remain all year round, except for one or two species. The grain is usually very noticeable. Examples: Pine, Larch, and Spruce. They grow in cool countries like the UK, Scandinavia, Canada, and Russia. HARDWOODScome from trees that have broad leaves. (Broadleaf trees). They are common in cool countries also, and the leaves fall off in winter. Examples: Oak, Ash, and Elm. HARDWOODS also grow in tropical countries where it is hot and wet. There is no winter so the leaves are there all year round. Examples of Tropical Hardwoods: Mahogany. Jelutong, Balsa. Contents

  16. Data on Timber The Importance Of Timber Timber has been an important material all over the world for thousands of years. Britain’s natural forests have almost completely disappeared, due to the increase in need for land for development and for home building. The remaining world forests are ecologically important as they change carbon dioxide into oxygen and this helps prevent global warming. Timber can be a renewable resource if it is harvested and planted properly. How We Get Our Wood Growing Tree Felled Log Sawn Log Plank Contents

  17. Softwoods and Their Properties(Coniferous trees) Contents

  18. Hardwoods and Their Properties(Broadleaf trees) Contents

  19. Man-made Boards Wide boards of hardwood or softwood are expensive and can warp. Man-made boards are available in large boards which do not warp (twist). ROTARY CUT VENEERS – the log is fitted to a lathe and is then slowly rotated against a knife that cuts a continuous sheet of wood. PLYWOOD – is made from layers or piles of wood glued together. The grain of each ply is laid at right angles to the next. This makes the ply strong in both directions. Plywood is ideal for lightweight box construction, cabinet backs and drawer bottoms. Contents

  20. Man-made Boards BLOCKBOARD and LAMINBOARD – these boards are made by sandwiching strips of softwood between two piles. The strips are narrower for laminboard. The outer faces of veneer have the grain running at right angles to the strips. It is usually less expensive to make laminboard rather than plywood that is over 12mm thick. CHIPBOARD – is made by gluing chips of wood together under heat and pressure. Veneer and plastic laminate-faced chipboard is widely used for worktops, shelves and furniture making. Contents

  21. Man-made Boards MEDIUM DENSITY FIBREBOARD(MDF) – is usually manufactured in a similar way to hardboard but is compressed under greater pressure and is therefore much stronger. MDF is cheap, strong and is easily shaped and finished. It is ideal for all types of furniture making. Contents

  22. Methods of Joining Timber There are many different methods used to join timber together. Here we will look at some of the most common used. THE HOUSING JOINT – is used in the carcass construction of cabinets to support shelves and in box construction for partitions. THE REBATE – is used in carcass construction to join sides to the top and likewise in box construction. THE DOWELLED JOINT – is used in similar situations as the rebate. A jig is very useful to help make sure that the dowel holes line up. Contents

  23. Methods of Joining Timber THE DOVETAIL JOINT – is very strong because of the way the ‘tails’ and ‘pins’ are shaped. This makes it difficult to pull the joint apart and virtually impossible when glue is added. This type of joint is used in box constructions such as drawers, jewellery boxes, cabinets and other pieces of furniture where strength is required. KNOCKDOWN FITTINGS – There is a wide range of knockdown fittings available. These devices are commonly used to fit flat packed furniture together, particularly chip board flat packed kitchens Contents

  24. Woodworking Hand Tools There are a vast range of hand tools available to the wood worker but here we will only look at the tools that you will be using in first and second year. Contents

  25. Woodworking Hand Tools Contents

  26. Woodworking Hand Tools Contents

  27. Woodworking Hand Tools Contents

  28. Machine Tools While there is a large range of machine tools available to the wood worker and the metalworker it will only be necessary to look at one of these machines for now. The Pedestal or Pillar Drill This machine is designed to drill holes. The pedestal drill will hold both parallel and tapered shank twist drills. Unlike the drills you may have seen at home or in Do it Yourself shops the drill is mounted on a stand which supports it weight and makes it easy to use. Although the drill is fixed the drill table is adjustable both for height and from side to side (some tables can also be tilted so that angled drilling can be done). This is to allow different shapes and sizes of objects to be drilled. To allow the user to drill accurately there is a depthstop on the side of the drill. The depth stop is very useful if the user wishes to drill a series of holes al the same depth. The pedestal drill is not a dangerous machine to use provided all the health and safety rules are strictly followed. Contents

  29. Methods Of Fixing Timber As well as fixing timber with glue it is often necessary to use mechanical methods as well. Normally this is done either to hold the joint together while the glue dries or to allow the joint to be taken apart later. NAILS AND NAILING – there is a vast range of nails available. Each nail type is designed to be used for a special purpose. As well as having different types of nails they are also available in different lengths. The types of nails that you will generally use in first and second year are panel pins. Panel Pins are very thin nails with small heads and are used to hold panels in place while the glue dries. So that the head of the nail is not visible it can be driven below the surface of the wood with a nail punch. WOOD SCREWS – are a much more secure method of mechanically joining timber together. It is also possible to undo a screwed joint to dismantle the construction. Screws are also available in different types, sizes and lengths. Contents

  30. Wood Finishes There are two main reasons for giving wood a finish. • To protect it from dirt and the wet. • To make it look good. Examples of wood finishes: Gloss paint. Varnish. Sanding Sealer. Stain. Vegetable Oil. How to get a good finish. • Plane it smooth • Sand it along the grain with abrasive paper. (e.g. Glass paper, garnet paper) • Remove the dust • Apply the 1st coat of varnish. Do not overload the brush. • When dry, rub down with glass paper. • Apply the 2nd coat of varnish. Do not overload the brush. • Repeat this 3 or 4 times. Contents

  31. Wood Finishes VARNISH – is probably the most frequently used finish applied to timber. This is because it brings out the natural colour and grain of the timber. Generally varnishes are clear (uncoloured) and are available in gloss, silk and matt finish. SILK FINISH gives a more natural sheen to the wood and does not show up the imperfections like gloss varnish. The two most common types of varnish available today are polyurethane and acrylic. POLYURETHANE varnish gives a very hard wearing waterproof, smooth finish after only one or two coats but the brush has to be very carefully cleaned in white spirit afterwards. Polyurethane varnish is the best finish for exterior work. ACRYLIC varnish requires more coats, is perhaps not a durable, but he brush can easily be cleaned under the tap. Contents

  32. Wood Finishes PAINT FINISHES – there are a number of types of paint suitable for application on wood. There are: Emulsion Oil based paints Polyurethane Emulsion paint is water based and is not very durable. A wide range of colours is available. Being water based the brush is easily cleaned under the tap. Emulsion paints are available in matt or silk finish. Oil based paints are much more durable than emulsion and are suitable for both interior and exterior use. These paints come in a wide range of colours which are usually a gloss finish. The brush must be cleaned in white spirit. Polyurethane paints are very durable and hardwearing. They are ideal for exterior use and are available in a wide range of colours. The brush must be cleaned in white spirit. Contents

  33. Metals and their Properties Contents

  34. Metals and their Properties Aluminium is a very important metal. It comes from the ore called Bauxite. The Bauxite is heated in an electric furnace. The metal produced is very pure Pure aluminium is soft and easy to work. It can be made stronger and harder by mixing other metals with it. (This is called and alloy). Aluminium is lightweight, easy to recycle and it is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It is a non-ferrous metal. (It contains no iron). It does not rust as iron does. Instead a skin of oxide forms on the surface so it looks dull. The skin prevents further oxidation. Contents

  35. Metalworking Hand Tools Contents

  36. Metalworking Hand Tools Contents

  37. Metalworking Hand Tools Contents

  38. Permanent Methods of Joining Metals WELDING – Steel parts can be joined together by using an electric current to melt a steel rod onto the joint. There is a danger of flashes to the eyes. A weld is very strong but not very neat. Example: Metal chairs and benches. BRAZING – This is very similar to welding, except that a brass rod is used and a hot flame is used to heat up the metal. A brazed joint is not as strong as a weld, but it is neater. Example: Bicycle frames. Contents

  39. Permanent Methods of Joining Metals RIVETING – A rivet is a sort of metal rod with a head. It can be hammered into shape. Example: Pot lids and handles. Flat head rivet for thin metal. Snap head rivet for strength. Countersunk head Rivet for a flat joint POP RIVETING – hollow rivets are put in with a ‘gun’. Used for joining thin metal. The work can be done from one side. Example: Ventilation Ducts. Contents

  40. Permanent Methods of Joining Metals SPOT WELDING – For joining thin sheets. The spot welder melts the metal at a single ‘spot’. It works by passing an electric current through the metal at the spot. The spot gets so hot that it melts the plates together. Example: Car bodies Contents

  41. Metal Finishes As with timber, the finish of metal is very important. Before applying any finish to metal the surface must be carefully prepared. If the article is to be painted the surface of the metal should be prepared in the following way. • Prepare the metal by making sure that all major blemishes are removed. This should be first with a file and then with emery cloth. • Any major imperfections can be repaired with plastic car body filler. • Once the surface has been thoroughly prepared and sanded down it should be wiped clean with a cloth dipped in white spirit to remove all traces of oil and grease. Contents

  42. Metal Finishes • The metal should now be painted with a suitable primer – in the care of ferrous metals a rust preventative primer. • When the primer is dry it should be lightly rubbed down with fine grade wet or dry paper and then cleaned with a cloth in preparation for the topcoat. • If the finish achieved in 5 is acceptable then the topcoat should be applied. If not, the stages 4 and 5 should be repeated. Contents

  43. Metal Finishes The above procedures apples to a variety of different paint materials. • Oil based paints – cover well and are ideal for both indoor and outdoor use. • Emulsion paints – are available in a wide variety of colours. They are not very durable and are best suited to indoor use. • Cellulose paints - are available in a wide variety of colours. These paints, available in spray cans, are used to paint car bodies. Contents

  44. Metal Finishes DIP COATING – gives protection to metals by coating with a coloured plastic. The work should first be cleaned and then heated. When hot, the metal is then dipped into the nylon or acrylic powder, which is contained in a fluidiser. A fluidiser tank contains the plastic powder which has compressed air blown in at the base. This renders the powder ‘fluid’ and ensures even coating of the hot metal. The coated article is then removed from the tank and allowed to cool. The hot metal first melts the plastic powder attached to its surface and as it cools the plastic hardens leaving a thin coating of plastic on the metal surface. The metal can be heated using an oven at approximately 150oC Fluidiser Contents

  45. Data on Plastics Compared with wood and metal, plastics are very new materials. They have only been manufactured during the last 40 years or so. There are many kinds of plastic and we use them for many different jobs. This is because they can be made to behave in almost any way that is needed. You have probably come across plastics that are hard, soft, brittle, flexible, transparent, coloured and so on. The list is almost endless. Contents

  46. Data on Plastics Most plastics are made from oil; a natural material which will run out quite soon if we do not use it sensibly. Disposing of waste plastic without causing pollution can also be a problem, so perhaps we should now stop thinking of plastic as such a disposable material. There are two main types of plastic: THERMOSETTING PLASTICS – are generally strong and resistant to heat. Once formed into a shape they cannot be re-shaped. These plastics are used in situations where resistance to heat is important. Although they are quite hard, they can be chipped or cracked if they are dropped or banged. THERMOPLASTICS – when thermoplastics are heated, they become soft and can be moulded into shapes. When cooled, they keep their shape. If these plastics are heated again they become soft and can be re-moulded into other shapes. This process can be repeated over and over again as long as the plastic has not been stretched too far. Contents

  47. Plastics and their Properties Contents

  48. Plastics and their Properties Contents

  49. Shaping and Forming Plastics Plastics such as acrylic can be easily cut, shaped, drilled and formed. These processes in general will use equipment that is also used for metal and/or wood. The main difference with plastic is that it need to be treated very carefully as it can be scratched, chipped or broken easily. Materials such as acrylic come with a protective coating of paper or film, this should be left on to protect the material while it is being worked. CUTTING AND SHAPING ACRYLIC – before cutting the material should be carefully marked out with a felt tipped pen. Once marked out the acrylic should be cut with either a junior hacksaw or a coping saw. The material should be cut near to the line but not on it and then the plastic can be filed up to the line. DRILLING ACRYLIC – acrylic and be drilled with ordinary twist drills, hole saws and flat bits. However, as the acrylic is quite brittle it should be drilled with great care. The cutter should be brought down on the plastic very slowly. Contents

  50. Shaping and Forming Plastics FORMING ACRYLIC – there are two main methods of forming acrylic used in schools. These are: • Strip heater – bending • Press forming THE STRIP HEATER – is designed to heat a narrow strip across a sheet of plastic so that it can be bent. The heater has a single element enclosed in a box which has a slot above the element. The plastic sheet should be heated on both sides to ensure even heating. To make bends at particular angles the sheet can be bent against a protractor and the correct angle maintained while the plastic cools. Contents