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Ethernet Networking Technology Overview and Network Design. 1. 2. 3. Agenda. 10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology. What is a Local Area Network?. Overview of network technologies. 4. 5. 6. Agenda. 100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology. Switching technology. 1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology. 1. 2.

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agenda

1

2

3

Agenda

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

slide3

4

5

6

Agenda

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switching technology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

slide4

1

2

3

4

5

6

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switchingtechnology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

what is a local area network
What is a Local Area Network?
  • Definition of a LAN
  • Why use a LAN?
  • Characteristics of LANs
  • LAN Topologies and Structured Cabling
  • Repeaters, Bridges and Routers
  • Switching and Segmenting networks
  • Virtual LANs
definition of a lan
Definition of a LAN
  • A LAN is a system of cabling, equipment and software which allows computers to share and exchange data electronically, using an agreed format (protocol), within a ‘local’ area
other types of area network
Other types of Area Network
  • WAN - Wide Area Network
    • Interconnecting LANs and users over long distances, often on a public network
  • MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
    • Interconnecting LANs and users within a city area, typically by dedicated fibre optics
why use a lan
Why use a LAN?
  • An island of information
why use a lan1
Why use a LAN?
  • Users can share data
    • Saves time, makes work more efficient
  • Connect different computers together
    • A LAN can be the common denominator
  • Users can share resources (printers, storage)
    • Saves money on expensive capital equipment
    • Centralised administration
  • E-mail, Internet and Multimedia
    • Reduces paper documents, better information
lan characteristics
LAN Characteristics
  • How are LANs characterised?
    • By speed (bandwidth)
    • By topology
    • By special features
    • By their target application
  • LAN technologies are optimised for certain application areas
network topologies
Network Topologies

BUS

Nodes are all connected to the same circuit

RING

Nodes are connected in a daisy chain

network access methods

T

Network Access Methods

Contention

Nodes try to use the network at any time

Token Passing

Nodes wait their turn to use the network

network wiring topologies
Network Wiring Topologies

Bus

Ring

STAR wiring topology

Nodes are physically wired to a central point

structured cabling
Structured Cabling
  • Uses UTP for floor wiring
  • Uses Fibre for backbone connections
  • Many more wires installed than users - flood wiring
  • All cables star-wired from central points
  • Flexible, resilient, future proof, easy moves
connecting nodes to a lan
Connecting nodes to a LAN

Network Operating System (NOS) Software

To other hosts on the network

Cable

Network Hub

“DTE”

MACAddress

Communication

by an agreedProtocol

Network Interface Card (NIC)

network protocols
Network Protocols
  • Protocols are the “language” used on a network
  • The network just sends and receives packets of data, while the protocol ensures that the right data is delivered to the right place
  • Using common protocols allows computers from different manufacturers to exchange data
slide17

Protocols defined...

A protocol is a common system

where both parties acknowledge

the same rules governing

communication.

interconnecting networks
Interconnecting Networks
  • Three ways to join network segments together: Repeaters, Bridges and Routers
  • Repeaters extend physical networks
  • Bridges link networks of the same type together
  • Routers connect networks of different types together
connecting network segments with repeaters

Repeater

Connecting network segments with Repeaters

Repeater forwards all activity

All network traffic visible to all the nodes on the network

connecting network segments with bridges

Bridge

Connecting network segments with Bridges

Bridge only forwards traffic intended for the other network

Local Traffic stays on local segment

Local Traffic stays on local segment

connecting networks together with routers

WAN

Connecting networks together with Routers

Local Network

Routers transfer protocol-specific traffic (e.g. IP, IPX) between different network types, e.g. across a WAN

Router

X.25, Frame Relay, ISDN etc.

Local Traffic stays on local segments

Remote Network

Router

summary
Summary
  • Networks allow computers to share data quickly and cheaply
  • Networks are a combination of hardware and software
  • Network technologies can be shared or switched, or a mix of both
slide23

2

3

4

1

5

6

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switchingtechnology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

overview of network technologies
Overview of Network technologies
  • Ethernet: 10 Mbit/s
  • Fast Ethernet: 100 Mbit/s
  • Gigabit Ethernet: 1000 Mbit/s
  • IBM Token Ring: 4 and 16 Mbit/s
  • 100VG-AnyLAN: 100 Mbit/s
  • FDDI: 100 Mbit/s
  • ATM: 25, 155 and 622 Mbit/s
ethernet technologies
Ethernet Technologies
  • 10 Mbit/s Ethernet
    • One of the oldest network technologies, and still the most popular
  • Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s)
    • Upgrade route from 10 Mbit/s, providing higher performance
  • Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbit/s)
    • The next generation for servers and backbones, providing very high throughput
gigabit ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
  • Promoted by the Gigabit Ethernet Alliance
  • Being standardised in IEEE 802.3z, due in 1998
  • Uses same CMSA/CD technology as Ethernet, running at 1000 Mbit/s
  • Gigabit Ethernet on copper cabling is a special problem
  • High-performance backbone technology
network technologies summary
Network Technologies: Summary
  • Networking technologies can be classified by their access mechanism
  • Contention-based technologies are less efficient than other solutions, but the overall cost of ownership is lower
  • Ethernet covers all parts of a LAN from desktop to backbone
slide28

1

2

3

4

5

6

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switchingtechnology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

10 mbit s ethernet
10 Mbit/s Ethernet
  • Origins of 10 Mbit/s Ethernet
  • How Ethernet works
    • CSMA/CD operation
    • Full and Half Duplex modes
    • Ethernet frames
  • Components of an Ethernet LAN
    • Software and Network Interface Card
    • Transceivers and Cabling
    • Repeaters and Hubs
    • Switches
origins of 10 mbit s ethernet
Origins of 10 Mbit/s Ethernet
  • Original system design by DEC, Intel, and Xerox (hence DIX Ethernet)
  • Designed in 1970’s, first specifications 1980
  • Ethernet type II adopted as IEEE 802.3 10BASE-X, first published in 1985
how ethernet works 1
How Ethernet works 1
  • All transmission is at 10 million bits per second (0’s or 1’s)
  • Users are connected to common cable (media)
  • Access to the media is by a simple set of rules known as Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detect (CSMA/CD).
    • Listen for silence on cable (CS)
    • Transmit data without waiting your turn (MA)
    • If you hear someone else talking - stop sending, and wait for a random time before trying again (CD)
how ethernet works 2
How Ethernet Works 2

1. Send when the network is quiet

2. Collision is detected if another station sends

3. Both stations wait for a random time

4. Re-send again when the network is quiet

full and half duplex 1
Full and Half Duplex 1
  • Normal Ethernet only allows one frame on the cable at a time (Half Duplex)
  • UTP and fibre optics use separate circuits for Transmit and Receive
  • Full Duplex allows frames to be sent and received at the same time over a point-to-point link
  • Both ends must support Full Duplex
  • Repeaters cannot support full duplex
full and half duplex 2
Full and Half Duplex 2

Half Duplex Operation

Full Duplex Operation

Transmit only - OK

Transmit and Receiveat same time on separatecircuits - OK

Receive only - OK

Transmit and Receive = Collision

how data is transferred
How Data is Transferred
  • All data is transferred in ‘packets’
  • A packet of data has addressing details at the start, and error checking data at the end. This is known as a ‘frame’
  • Moving data in small pieces gives everyone an equal chance to get their data through
  • Smaller packets are more likely to be delivered without errors
the ethernet frame
The Ethernet Frame

SOFdelimiter

DestinationMAC Address

Type/length

Data 46 - 1500 Bytes

2

6 Bytes

6 bytes

4

Preamble

Source MAC Address

CRC (checksum)

  • Preamble allows timing alignment
  • Start Of Frame delimiter indicates start of frame
  • CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is a checksum to ensure the frame was received OK
  • Total frame length varies from 64 to 1,518 bytes (after SOF delimiter)
components of an ethernet lan
Components of an Ethernet LAN

Software

Point-to-point link cable (integral XCVR)

Network Interface card

Hub:Repeater, Bridge, SwitchorRouter

Drop cable (external XCVR)

Shared cable

External Transceiver

network interface card
Network Interface Card
  • The Network Interface Card (NIC) contains:
    • the connection to the transceiver, or a built-in transceiver
    • circuitry for generating frames and accessing the network
    • the physical MAC address
    • a software interface to the protocol software in the host
transceivers
Transceivers
  • Transceivers provide the electrical and physical connection between the Adapter and the shared network cable

AUI drop cable

XCVR

Thick Ethernet Cable

  • This type of transceiver is not used much today as most NICs have this function built in.
current transceiver uses
Current Transceiver Uses
  • Connecting standard hub/router/switch AUI interfaces to cable media
  • Connecting ‘legacy’ cards to newer cabling
ethernet cable options
Ethernet Cable Options

The cable provides physical connection between the adapter cards. Multiple cable types are available.

Cable

Connector

Usage

Ethernet

10Base5

AUI connection viaVampire Tap

Half-duplexshared cable

Thick Ethernet

10Base2

Half-duplexshared cable

BNC

Thin Ethernet

10BaseT

100BaseTX

Full-DuplexPoint-to-point link

RJ45

Twisted Pair (UTP)

SMA* Screw typeST BayonetSC Dual Mini

10BaseFL

100BaseFX

Full-DuplexPoint-to-point link

Fibre Optic

* SMA now obsolete, no new equipment manufactured to support this standard

slide42

Ethernet Cable Options

New fibre connectors becoming widespread during 1999/2000.

Lucent LC

New sub-miniature SC

3M Volition VF-45

Fibre version of RJ-45

AMP MT-RJ

Fibre version of RJ-45

10BaseFL

100BaseFX

Full-DuplexPoint-to-point link

Fibre Optic

cable distances and taps
Cable Distances and Taps

10BASE5 = 10 Mbps Baseband 500 metres length (100 taps)

10BASE2 = 10 Mbps Baseband 200 (185)metres (30 Taps)

10BASE-T =10 Mbps Baseband (100 metres) Twisted pair (single Tap)

10 mbit s repeaters
10 Mbit/s Repeaters
  • 10 Mbit/s Repeaters allow more users AND more distance
  • Repeaters do a number of tasks:
    • restore the signal levels (amplify signal)
    • ensure that collisions are recognised, and stop anyone else transmitting until it is safe
four repeater roule

Hub

Hub

Hub

Hub

Four Repeater Roule
  • Si può vedere l’hub come un multiport repeater.
  • Come nel coassiale esiste la regola dei 4 repeater negli hub a 10Mb/s
ethernet 5 4 3 rule

Repeater

Repeater

Link Segment

MultinodeSegment

MultinodeSegment

Link Segment

Repeater

Repeater

MultinodeSegment

Ethernet 5-4-3 Rule
  • Maximum of five segments
  • Maximum of four repeaters between any two nodes
  • Maximum of three multi-node segments
why are there limits
Why are there Limits?
  • Transmission from a user down the network cable takes time.
  • All users must see transmission before user has transmitted half of his frame.
  • This may need to checked by calculating the Round Trip Delay Time.
    • i.e. RT Delay < time for min frame length
    • or time for 64 Bytes (512 Bit times)
  • The 5-4-3 rule is usually sufficient for 10 Mbit/s Ethernet
ethernet hubs
Ethernet Hubs
  • Hubs provide a central connection point for networks
  • Commonly used with Structured Cabling Schemes
hubs and management
Hubs and Management
  • Hubs can be combined to create one big repeater - stackable, chassis based
  • Flexible options for integrating all media types
  • Management features allow network supervisors to see traffic flow and solve problems fast
  • Other advanced features also added
    • e.g. security
10 mbit s ethernet summary
10 Mbit/s Ethernet: Summary
  • Repeater
    • copies everything from one segment to another: collisions, fragments, all frames including broadcasts
  • Bridges and Switching Hubs
    • Selected frames including broadcasts are copied, based on the destination MAC address
  • Router
    • Copies / converts selected frames based on protocol address
slide51

1

2

3

4

5

6

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switchingtechnology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 mbit s ethernet
100 Mbit/s Ethernet
  • Relationship with 10BASE-X
  • Media options and technologies
  • Repeaters and configuration rules
  • Media Independent Interface (MII)
  • N-Way Auto-Negotiation
  • 100BASE-X switching
100base x networks
100BASE-X Networks
  • Based on CSMA/CD
  • Transmission at 100 Million Bits per second
  • Uses same frames as 10 Mb Ethernet
    • Whole protocol stack and NOS remain unchanged
    • Easy migration from existing systems
auto negotiation nway
Auto-Negotiation (Nway)
  • Nway auto-negotiation
    • Negotiation of a ‘way’ from N options
    • Happens between the two ends of a link
    • Fastest available ‘way’ is selected
    • If only one end has Nway then speed is detected (but not always duplex mode)
mii media independent interface
MII - Media Independent Interface
  • MII is a standardised interface between a 100BASE-X transceiver and the connected station (DTE)
  • The DTE can control the transceiver function, e.g. full/half duplex & speed
  • The transceiver can ‘declare’ its capabilities to the DTE
100base x media options
100BASE-X Media Options

Cable IEEE 802.3u Standard Pairs Used Distance

UTP Cat 5 100BASE-TX 2 100m

UTP Cat 3,4,5 100BASE-T4 4 100m

Fibre 100BASE-FX 2 fibres 412m*

Fibre 100BASE-FX 2 fibres 2000m**

* Half Duplex DTE-DTE

**Full Duplex DTE-DTE

100base x technologies tx
100BASE-X Technologies: TX
  • 100BASE-TX
    • Uses two twisted pairs
    • Same system as 10BASE-T but faster!
    • Must have Category 5 cable to run on
    • Max distance 100m
    • Full or Half duplex possible
100base x technologies fx
100BASE-X Technologies: FX
  • 100BASE-FX
    • Uses two 62.5/125 multimode fibres
    • Operates at 1300nm (10BASE-FL operates at 850nm)
    • Full duplex is possible but no auto-negotiation
    • The maximum link length depends on the configuration of the network
      • i.e. it gets shorter if you have a repeater
100base x repeaters
100BASE-X Repeaters
  • Primary use for 100BASE-X repeaters is to add more users
  • Otherwise the same functions as 10BASE-X repeater
100base x repeater classes
100BASE-X Repeater Classes
  • IEEE 802.3u defines two classes of repeater according to signal delay
    • Class I (the worst class!)
      • delay of less than 140 bit times
    • Class II
      • delay of less than 92 bit times
  • 1 bit time is 1/100,000,000th of a second (10 nanoseconds)
basic configuration rules
Basic Configuration Rules
  • Maximum of one Class I repeater in a collision domain
  • Maximum of 2 Class II repeaters, but limited distance

Class II

Class II

Class I

5m

100m

100m

100m

100m

calculating complex configurations
Calculating complex configurations
  • As with 10 Mbit/s Ethernet, the Round Trip Delay time must be less than 512 bit times to guarantee collision detection
  • The basic rules about repeaters only cover the situations in the previous slide, so always calculate anything else
calculating the delay
Calculating the Delay

“Typical bit time delays” for 100 Mbit/s network components

Component Delay per metre Max delay

Two TX/FX DTEs 100

Two T4 DTEs 138

One T4 and one TX/FX DTE 127

Cat 3 Cable Segment 1.14 114 (100m)

Cat 4 Cable segment 1.14 114 (100m)

Cat 5 Cable segment 1.112 111.2 (100m)

Shielded Twisted Pair Cable 1.112 111.2 (100m)

Fibre Optic Cable 1.0 412 (412m)

Class I Repeater 140

Class II Repeater all TX/FX 92

Class II Repeater with any T4 67

AT-MC101 40

example calculation 1

100Mbps Hub

N

Example Calculation 1

60m Fibre

100Mbps Hub

80m UTP

100m UTP

Device Delay (bit times)

Two DTEs 100

180m Cat 5 UTP 200

2* Class II Repeaters 184

60m Fibre segment 60

margin 4

TOTAL 548

The above system is outside the limits and will not function correctly

example calculation 2

100Mbps Hub

C

Example Calculation 2

200m Fibre

100m UTP

Device Delay (bit times)

Two DTEs 100

100m Cat 5 UTP 111

Class II Repeater 92

200m Fibre segment 200

Margin 4

TOTAL 507

The above system is within the 512 bit time limit so will work OK.

switched 100 mbit s
Switched 100 Mbit/s
  • Similar to switched 10 Mbit/s Ethernet
  • Most 100 Mbit/s switches support 10 Mbit/s ports too
  • Requires an order of magnitude increase in throughput
    • 160 Mb/s for 16 port 10Mbps switch
    • 1.6 Gb/s for 16 port 100Mbps switch
  • Key application as backbone switch
100 mbit s ethernet summary
100 Mbit/s Ethernet: Summary
  • 100 Mbit/s and 10 Mbit/s Ethernet use the same CSMA/CD technology and software
  • Shared multi-drop cables are not supported
  • Round Trip Delay time calculations are essential for network design
  • 100 Mbit/s can be integrated into a 10 Mbit/s network only with switching technology
slide68

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

100 Mbit/s Ethernet: Summary

  • Distances are more restricted so 100Mbps tends to be switch-centric in design.

H

slide69

1

2

3

4

5

6

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switching technology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

switching technology 1
Switching Technology 1
  • The maximum bandwidth available on a shared network is limited to the network speed, regardless of the number of nodes
  • The maximum traffic that these nodes could generate is more than the network could carry
  • Sharing the same media introduces a bottleneck

Conversation

switching technology 2
Switching Technology 2
  • A Switching Hub at the centre of the network can handle multiple point-to-point conversations at the same time
  • The use of the network is more efficient

Three simultaneous conversations

segmenting networks 1
Segmenting Networks 1
  • Very large networks are less efficient, even with switching technology
  • It is unusual for all users on a large network to need frequent communications with all other users
  • Segmenting a large network into functional groups improves performance and manageability
segmenting networks 2
Segmenting Networks 2
  • Large networks generate a lot of traffic at the hub in the centre
  • The broadcast load is proportional to the square of the number of nodes

100%

segmenting networks 3

25%

25%

Segmenting Networks 3

Broadcast load is quartered

Non-broadcast inter-network traffic

switched 10 mbit s
Switched 10 Mbit/s
  • Switch separates traffic that is sent direct from station to station - Datagrams.
  • MAC addresses are learned from incoming frames.
  • Frames are only sent out of port where the destination address resides.
  • Broadcast frames are forwarded to all ports, to the MAC address FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
switching techniques 1
Switching Techniques 1

Store and forward switching

Whole frame buffered in memory, then sent

SOF delimiter

Destination Address

Type/length

Data 46 - 1500 Bytes

2

6 Bytes

6 bytes

4

Preamble

Source Address

CRC

Cut-through switchingForwarding started just after the destination MAC address arrives

switching techniques 2

SOF delimiter

Destination Address

Type/length

CRC

Data 46 - 1500 Bytes

2

6 Bytes

6 bytes

4

Preamble

Source Address

Switching Techniques 2

Fragment-free cut-through

frame forwarded after 64 Bytes

segment switching

hub

hub

switch

hub

hub

Segment Switching
  • Switch is used to ‘feed’ hubs.
  • Small groups of users share 10 Mbit/s segments from switch e.g. Turbo Stack
  • Reasonable MAC address capacity required
  • Extra features
workgroup switching
Workgroup Switching
  • Small switch provides dedicated switch ports to individual ‘power’ users.
  • Low MAC address capacity required
  • Low cost per port

Switch

backbone enterprise switching
Backbone/Enterprise Switching
  • Large, high capacity switch used to connect backbone segments of large networks.
  • Huge MAC address capacity required
  • Modular design - chassis based
  • Very high throughput capability
bandwidth switching
Bandwidth Switching
  • Switches can be used to connect segments of different speeds, e.g. 10 and 100 Mbit/s
  • The 10 Mbit/s segments can be ‘multiplexed’ onto the 100 Mbit/s segment
  • The switch must use Store-and-Forward to change the bandwidth

Switch

100 Mbit/s

10 Mbit/s

rules for using switches
Rules for using Switches
  • Switch is essentially a bridge, so start any repeater counts again.
  • Too many switches in network could cause delay. IEE 802.3 says max 7 bridges. (This is an arbitrary number based on Token Ring limitations)
  • Keep number of hops to main servers low.
hub dual speed autosensing
Hub Dual-Speed Autosensing

10 Mbps

  • Reti miste: con utenti a 10 e 100 mbps
  • Configurazione Stackable: facilmente espandibile
  • Percorso di migrazione da Ethernet a Fast Ethernet

Sw

100 Mbps

Switch

Module

….

virtual lans vlans 1
Virtual LANs (VLANs) 1
  • A company-wide network may not be the right solution, due to high traffic and security issues
  • The user may want to divide their big network into smaller sections
  • But, flexibility is also needed as people move around
  • A “Virtual Network” solves this problem
virtual lans 2
Virtual LANs 2

Virtual Network Switch

VLAN “C”

VLAN “B”

VLAN “A”

slide86

1

2

3

4

6

5

What is a Local Area Network?

Overview of network technologies

10 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

100 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

Switchingtechnology

1000 Mbit/s Ethernet technology

the pressure on networks today
The pressure on networks today
  • Traffic Flows have changed
    • Used to be 80% local, 20% backbone
    • Now 20% local and 80% backbone
  • User requirements have changed
    • Word processing was dominant
    • Now Internet use is the dominant application
  • Application useage has changed
    • It only takes 8 bytes to send the word ‘airplane’
    • It takes 80,000 bytes to send an image of an airplane
    • It takes 8,000,000 to send a video clip of an airplane
1000mbps gigabit systems
1000Mbps Gigabit Systems
  • Same frame formats and protocols as 10/100 Ethernet
  • Same Full/Half Duplex mode
  • Same management (SNMP/RMON) systems
  • Primarily a fibre based technology
  • Standardised by IEEE as 802.3z
1000basex cable options
1000BaseX Cable Options

Standard Media Range

1000BaseLX Single Mode Fibre 3km+

1000BaseLX Multi-Mode Fibre 550m

1000BaseSX Multi-Mode 300m

(most common type)

1000BaseCX Twinaxial Cable 25m

1000BaseT UTP 100m

1000basex media
1000BaseX Media
  • The basic media carrier for 100Base is the GBIC
  • GBICs are a media independent device (similar to transceiver in 10Base)
  • Provide plug in options for SX or LX fibre
1000basex hardware
1000BaseX Hardware
  • Switches and Routers for Networks
  • Two primary types of switch
    • Core Switches……Multiple Gigabit ports
    • Edge Switches……Multiple 10/100 ports 1 or 2 Gigabit ports
slide92

A new layer of performance

1000Base Core

1000Base Edge

1000Base Edge

Performance

100Base Switch

100Base Switch

10Base Switch

10Base Switch

100Base Hub

100Base Hub

10Base Hub

10Base Hub

10Base Hub

10Base Hub